# Problem Formulation Model And Descriptive Hypothesis

## Formulation Model And Descriptive Hypothesis

One of the models that I recommend in designing the formulation of the problem and research hypothesis is to write a descriptive problem rvtmusan (describe something) first, then proceed to write the formulation of the problem and inferential hypothesis (provide conjectures on a particular population based on the research sample).

This problem and hypothesis formulation Model includes independent variables and dependent variables. In this model, the researcher makes descriptive problem formulation, each for independent variable, dependent variable, and intervening/control variable. After writing this descriptive problem formulation, the researcher can present an inferential problem formulation (or hypothesis) that relates to variables or compares groups. Here is an example of a descriptive and inferential problem formulation model.

### Examples of descriptive and inferential problem formulations

To illustrate this descriptive and inferential problem formulation model, let's assume that a researcher is analyzing the relationship between critical thinking skills (variabe! that free .measured based on certain instruments) and achievement (dependent variable based dmkur levels) eighth-grade students majoring in Social Sciences in metropolitan school distnk. As a follow-up, the researcher based this analysis on the control variables, namely the influence of previous students ' achievements in social science classes and parental education.

### If you follow the model described earlier, the formulation of the problem can be written as follows:

#### Descriptive Problem Formulation :

- What are the students ' average critical thinking skills? (Descriptive masalafi formulation focusing on free vanabels).
- What are the student achievement levels in social science classes?(Descriptive problem formulation focusing on bound vanabels).
- What were the quality levels of previous students in social science classes? (Descriptive problem formulation that focuses on the control variable, yaknj prestasiTprestasj previous students),
- How is the educational success of parents? (Descriptive problem formulation that focuses on other contrpl variables, namely the success of parental education).

#### Formulation Of Inferential Problems

- Does critical thinking affect student achievement? (The formulation of inferential problems that relate the independent variables with tentative variables.
- Does krijtis tierpengaruh thinking ability on achievement 5iswa? Does this influence also stem from the qualities of previous students and the educational success of parents? (The formulation of an inferential problem that connects the independent variable and the dependent variable, which also involves the influences of the two control variables).

The above example illustrates how to formulate the problem descriptively and inferentially in the context of relationships between variables. Researchers can compare groups of variables. However, in the formulation of the inferential problem, the language used may be slightly different. You can also create your own descriptive and inferential problem formulations by creating as many problem formulations as possible that link independent and dependent variables. However, I recommend you to use the descriptive-inferential model as above.

The above example also illustrates how to describe variables and relate them. Likewise, in the structure of the writing, the example above puts the independent variable in the First Order and the dependent variable in the second, while the control variable is in the third. Not only that, the above example also uses demographic information (such as parents ' education and previous student achievement) as a control variable rather than as the main variable so that the reader will assume that the formulation of the problem comes from a particular theoretical model.

### Source

Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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