Formulation Of Qualitative Research Problems And Hypotheses

Qualitative Research Problems And Hypotheses

In quantitative research, the researcher presents the formulation of the research problem and hypothesis, and sometimes the target of the research as well. The formulation of this problem is usually in the form of questions about the relationship between the variables to be analyzed by the researcher. Problem formulation is generally used in social science research and more specifically in survey research. On the other hand, quantitative hypotheses are those predictions that the researcher makes about the relationships between the variables that he expects. 

This hypothesis is usually a numerical estimate of the population assessed based on the data of the research sample. Testing a hypothesis means applying statistical procedures in which the researcher describes his assumptions about a particular population based on the research sample. Hypotheses are often used in experimental research in which researchers compare groups. Advisors usually recommend using this hypothesis only for formal research, such as a dissertation or thesis, to clarify where the research is directed.

In addition to the formulation of problems and hypotheses, there are also quantitative targets. These goals indicate long-term goals that are to be achieved. Quantitative targets are often found in funding proposals, but are rarely used in de was as social and Health Science Research. For this reason, our focus is only on the formulation of problems and research hypotheses. The following is an example of a quantitative problem formulation:

Is (name of theory) can explain the relationship between (independent variable) and (dependent variable), which is influenced by the island (control variable)?

While for example, the quantitative hypothesis can be like this (null hypothesis):

There was no significant difference between (the control group and the experimental group in the independent variable) against (the dependent variable).

In the following, a number of instructions are presented for writing a good quantitative problem formulation and hypothesis:

  1. * The variables in the formulation of the problem or hypothesis are usually only used with three basic approaches. First, the researcher compares the groups in the independent variable to see the impact on the dependent variable. Second, the researcher relates one or several independent variables with one or several dependent variables. Third, the researcher describes the responses to the independent variable, mediating variable, or dependent variable. Most quantitative research uses one or more of these three approaches. One of the most common concerns in quantitative research is the testing of a theory (see Chapter 3) and the specification of the problem formulation or hypothesis associated with that theory.
  2. * The independent variable and the dependent variable must be measured separately. This procedure also reinforces the logic of cause and effect in quantitative research.
  3. * To reduce "overload", write only the formulation of the problem or hypothesis, not both, unless the hypothesis is made based on the formulation of the problem (this, will be explained later). Choose a pattern of formulation of the problem or hypothesis based on the tradition or recommendations of the supervisor or the faculty, or based on the presence or absence of predictions of research results from previous studies.
  4. * If the hypothesis is used, there are two forms: the nol hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis represents the traditional approach: it makes a prediction that there is no significant relationship or difference between groups of research variables. The statement for the null hypothesis could be: "there is no difference (or relationship)" between groups. Here is an example of a null hypothesis:

Example 7.3 Nol Hypothesis

One researcher looked at three types of reinforcement for autistic children, namely verbal cues, rewards, and no reinforcement. The researchers collected information about the behavior of autistic children which can later be used as a measurement instrument to analyze their social interactions with their siblings. The null hypothesis for this study could be :
There were no significant differences between verbal cues, and rewards and no reinforcement to social interactions between autistic children and their siblings.

Example 7.4 Directional Hypothesis

Mascarenhas (1989) examined the differences between types of corporate ownership (Niagara-owned, public, and private) in Industrioffshore drilling (drilling away from partial). Specifically, the differences explored concern domestic market dominance, international reach, and customer orientation between the three types of companies. This study is a controlled field study (control field study} with quasi-experimental procedures


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