Formulation Of Problems And Hypotheses Mixed Method Research

Hypotheses Mixed Method Research

In books that discuss research methods, researchers usually will not see an explanation of the specific problem formulation or hypothesis that is designed for mixed method design, however, there has been much discussion about the application of mixed method problem formulation and how to design this problem formulation (see Creswell & Piano Clark, 2007; Tashakkori & Creswell, 20&7).

Research of mixed methods is supposed to begin with the formulation of the problem. which is indeed specially designed for mixed-method research.Haliriidimaksudkari to form a method and research design that is really appropriate and intact. Because campus method research often relies on one of two other research designs, namely quantitative or qualitative, the combination of these two designs may provide useful information in formulating problems and hypotheses of mixed methods. 

Thus, what needs to be considered is: what types of problem formulations should be presented and when and what information ' is most needed —in the formulation of the problem— to demonstrate the nature of mixed method research

  • The formulation of the problem (or hypothesis), whether based on a qualitative or quantitative design, should be equally presented in mixed method research to narrow and focus the research objectives. The formulation of this problem or hypothesis can be proposed at the beginning of the research or in other parts, depending on what stage of the research comes first. For example, if the research begins with a quantitative stage, the researcher should introduce a hypothesis first. Later, in the study, when the qualitative stage has begun to be discussed, then the researcher raises the formulation of qualitative problems.
  • When writing a problem statement or hypothesis for mixed-method research, follow the instructions in this chapter on how to write a good formulation of problems and hypotheses.
  • The researcher should also pay attention to the formulation of the problem and the hypothesis. In two-stage mixed method research (sequential), the formulation of the first stage of the problem should be proposed first, then followed by the formulation of the second stage of the problem so that the reader can see the formulations in sequence as their reference when going to read the entire study. For concurrent mixed method research, the formulation of the problem should be based on what method is most emphasized in the study.
  • Write a formulation of the mixed method research problem that directly indicates the mixing of quantitative and qualitative research characteristics. It is this formulation of the problem that Nan tiny A will answer based on the mixing process (see Creswell & Piano Clark, 2007). This is the latest formulation of the problem that has recently been discussed in many research method books. Tashakkori and Creswell (2007: 208), for example, call the formulation of the iru problem a "hybrid" or "integrated" formulation of the problem. The formulation of this kind of problem can be written at the beginning of the study as well as in other parts. For example, in a two-stage study, the formulation of the problem can be put under discussion between these two stages. This kind of formulation presupposes one of two forms. The first form is to write it when the researcher is discussing the methodology or procedures in the study (such as, whether qualitative data can help explain the results of the quantitative research phase before?) (See Creswell & Piano Clark, 2007). The second form is to write it down when the researcher is discussing the content of the study (such as, does the topic of social support help explain why some students are misbehaving in school?) (see Tashakkori & Creswell, 2007).
  • Consider also other different techniques: that any type of problem formulation (be it quantitative, qualitative, or mixed method) could have been written for the purposes of mixed method research, for example:

1. Write, separately and individually, a quantitative formulation of the problem or hypothesis and a qualitative formulation of the problem. All of these problem formulations and hypotheses can be written at the beginning of the research or in other parts when the research is at a certain stage. With this technique, it means that the researcher is emphasizing his research on two approaches at once (quantitative and qualitative), not on mixed methods alone or on the Integrative component of research alone.

2. Write, separately and individually, the quantitative formulation of the problem and hypothesis, the qualitative formulation of the problem, which is then followed by the formulation of the mixed method problem. This kind of writing technique Combs

the importance of these two stages of research (qualitative and quantitative) and the strength of their combination. It is not surprising that this kind of approach is considered the most ideal approach.

3. Write only mixed method problem formulations that reflect procedures or content (or, write mixed method problem formulations based on both procedural and content approaches), and do not write formulations quantitative and qualitative issues separately. This approach can improve the reader's view that the research is intended to integrate or strictly link the quantitative and qualitative stages of research (that is, the sum/combination of these two stages —quantitative and qualitative— is greater than the sum of each of the two).


Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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