Defining Survey And Experiment Design

Defining Survey And Experiment Design

In survey design, researchers quantitatively describe trends, behaviors, or opinions of a population by examining a sample of that population. From this sample, the researcher generalizes or makes claims about the population. In the design of the experiment, the researcher also identifies the sample and generalizes the population. 

The main purpose of experimental design is to test the impact of a treatment (or an intervention) on the results of research,. controlled by other possible factors that also influence the outcome. For example, in an experimental design involving a control group, the researcher randomly assigns individuals into groups. When one group received a treatment (experimental group, penj.) and another group (control group, penj.) no, the experimenter can sort out which are included in the treatment and which are other factors but also affect the outcome of the study.

Components Of Survey Method Design

To write the metcde part of a survey in a research proposal, researchers should follow a standard format. There are many examples of this format, such as in academic journals, and these examples often present models worth considering. In the following, we will present a number of components that have commonly appeared in survey research. However, before planning to include these components in a proposal, researchers should consider the questions in the checklist, as shown in Table 8.1, as a general guide.

Survey Design

In the proposal, one of the first components in the research methods section is the basic purpose or rationalization of the survey research. Begin discussing this first section with rciereview the purpose of the survey and the rationalization of the selection of such methods in your proposed research. Here are some things you can discuss in the proposal, especially in the research methods section for survey design:

  • * Identify the purpose of the survey research. Tuiuannya to generalize the population from several samples so that conclusions can be made/assumptions tentatively about the characteristics, behaviors, or attitudes of the population (Babbie, 1990). Present a reference to this purpose from one of the books / literature that discusses survey methods (some of these books I have shown in this chapter).
  • * Indicate why surveys are preferred as a type of data collection procedure in the study. For this rationalization, think about the advantages of the survey design, such as the economics of this design and the speed in presenting the research data. Don't forget to discuss the advantages of identifying traits of a population based on a small group of individuals (sample) (Babbie, 1990; Fowler, 2002).

Determine whether your survey is a cross - sectional survey by collecting data one at a time, or a longitudinal survey by collecting data cumulatively over time. 

Detail the data collection strategy. Fink {2002) suggests four data collection strategies, including: (1) self-administered questionnaires; (2) interviews; (3) structured record review to collect financial, medical, or school information; and (4) structured observation. Data collection can also be done by applying a website or internet-based survey and processing it online (Nesbary, 2000; Sue & Ritter, 2007). As with any data collected, which is clear, researchers must still rnenyajikan reason / rationalization of the use of the data collection procedure with arguments based on the strengths and weaknesses, cost (cost), availability of data, and ease.

Population and sample

Tenrukaniah population characteristics and sampling procedures. There are many methodologists who have written books on the basic logic of sampling theory (such as, Babbie, 1990,2007). The following are important aspects of the population and sample that can be described in the research proposal:

 Identify the population in the study. In addition, clearly state the magnitude of this population; whether it can be determined or not, and the ways in which individuals in the population can be identified. Access questions can also be written in this section, and the researcher can indicate availability of sampling frames-letters or lists—of potential respondents in the population.

*Clarify whether the sampling procedure for this population is single-stage or multi-stage (often known as clustering). A multi-stage sampling procedure or clustering sampling is an ideal sampling procedure when the researcher finds it impossible to collect a list of all the elements that make up a population (Babie, 2007). The salu-stage sampling procedure is a sampling procedure in which the researcher already has access to the names in the population and can sample a number of individuals (or elements) directly 


Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Berlangganan update artikel terbaru via email:

0 Response to "Defining Survey And Experiment Design"

Post a Comment

Iklan Atas Artikel

Iklan Tengah Artikel 1

Iklan Tengah Artikel 2

Iklan Bawah Artikel