Quantitative Research Literature Review

 Quantitative Research Literature 

Quantitative research, on the other hand, includes a large amount of primary literature at the beginning of the study to provide direction to the research questions and hypotheses. Quantitative research also uses literature to introduce problems or describe in detail previous literature in a special section entitled “Related Literature” or "literature review,” or similar titles. 

In addition, a literature review in quantitative research can be written to introduce a theory an explanation of the desired relationships (see Chapter 3), describe the theory to be used, and explain why the theory is important to study. 

At the end of the study, the researcher reviewed the existing literature and made a comparison between the results of the study with the findings contained in the literature. In this case, quantitative researchers use the literature deductively as a framework for designing problem formulations and research hypotheses.

Cooper (1984) suggests an integrative literature review: the researcher deduces common themes contained in the literature. This Model is often used in dissertation proposals and in the dissertation itself. The second model that Cooper recommends is a theoretical literature review: the researcher focuses on theories in various literature that deal with the problem under study. 

This Model usually appears in many journal articles, in which the author often explains the theory in the introduction. The last model Cooper suggests is a methodological literature review: the researcher focuses on methods and definitions. 

Such a review usually presents a summary of previous research and a critique of the methodological strengths and weaknesses in those studies. The latter Model is now rarely found in both thesis and dissertation.

In mixed method research, the researcher applies previous qualitative and quantitative approaches in writing a literature review, depending on the type of strategy used. For sequential strategies, literature is presented at each stage of the study while remaining consistent with the methods used. 

For example, if the research begins with a quantitative stage, the researcher may include a literature review at the beginning of the study that can help him build logic for the formulation of the research problem and hypothesis. If the study begins with a qualitative stage, the literature review is not too emphasized, which means that the researcher can present it in detail at the end of the study if the approach is inductive. 

If the researcher applies concurrent research with balanced weights and priorities between qualitative and quantitative data, the researcher can present the literature in detail at each qualitative and quantitative stage. In summary, the use of literature in mixed methods projects depends largely on the strategy and the weight given between qualitative or quantitative research.

Creswell (2017) in his book recommends several steps in writing or using literature for qualitative, quantitative research, and mixed methods. In qualitative research, use literature sparingly at the beginning of the study so that an inductive design can later be formed unless the type of design desired really requires orientation or detailed literature instructions at the beginning of the study.

Still in qualitative research

Still in qualitative research, also consider the segment of the place that is really suitable for literature review, and make the reader the basis for this consideration. Keep the following options in mind: put the literature review at the beginning of the writing to help build the framework of the research problem; put the literature review in a separate section or put the literature review at the end of the study to compare and contrast it with the research results.

In quantitative research, use the literature deductively, as a basis for designing problem formulations and research hypotheses.

Still in the quantitative research proposal

Still, in the quantitative research proposal, use the literature to introduce the research, and present the literature (literature review) in a separate section to compare the research results with the concepts contained in the literature.

Still in the quantitative research proposal

If the literature review is placed in a separate section, consider whether the review will be written in an integrative, theoretical, or methodological manner. The usual practice applied in dissertation writing, in general, is an integrative literature review.

In mixed methods research

In mixed methods research, use literature in a pattern consistent with the type of strategy chosen and in accordance with the weight given to the qualitative or quantitative approach.


Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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