Types of educational and Social Research Design

 Educational and Social Research Design

Research design is important because it is a strategy to obtain the data needed for hypothesis testing purposes or to answer research questions. In addition, the research design is also used as a tool to control variables that influence the research. 

This research design distinguishes the model in conducting research and this research model has a name and procedure associated with the model. In conducting research, especially quantitative research, one of the important steps is to create a research design.

A. Design Sense 

Design research is an important aspect of design and must be considered in carrying out a study. The research design guides the researcher to follow the steps or research procedures that must be followed and should not deviate from these steps or procedures. 

In mixed methods research, for example, Creswell and Clark (2005) argue that in mixed methods research, especially explanatory design procedure, research specifically places greater emphasis on quantitative methods than qualitative methods. 

King, Keohane, and Verba (1994) in Thomas (2003) stated that quantitative research methods seek to find measurements and analyses that can be repeated by other studies. 

Qualitative research, as expressed by Denzin and Lincoln (1994) shows that this research method seeks to clarify the interpretation of the natural environment (natural setting), feelings, and views of respondents or interpret their symptoms. 

Therefore, the qualitative research method seeks to collect material that can be used as Case Studies, personal experiences, introspective, life stories, and so on.

In other words, This qualitative research method seeks to understand personal stories and the way they interact (Denzin and Lincoln 1994) in Thomas (2003). In accordance with the views of these two experts, Greene (2007) in Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010) states that the use of combined research methods (mixed methods research) refers to the use of complementary methods for each of the same qualitative and quantitative research throughout the research process, with integration that applies to data analysis. 

Nau (1995) in Gratton and Jones (2010) also stated that the use of qualitative and quantitative research methods can produce the final product by highlighting the significant contribution of both methods. For example, qualitative data (qualitative data) can be used to support and describe the purpose of quantitative research (Jayaratne (1993) Gratton and Jones (2010) that is to provide some explanation of quantitative measures.

B. Objectives of the research design

Research design has two main objectives, namely to answer research and escort variance (Baba, 1999). According to Creswell to understand Educational Research, researchers need to understand the research process map. Creswell also states that there are at least eight Design Research Designs used in pedagogical research, namely: 

  1. Experimental conception 
  2. Correlate Design 
  3. Survey Design (Survey Design) 
  4. Design theory established (theoretical conception) 
  5. Ethnographic design (ethnographic conception) 
  6. Narrative research design (narrative research design) 
  7. Mixed method design (mixed-method design) 
  8. Action research design (action research design). 

In quantitative research, the research design uses questionnaires as the main instrument in the search for data, while interviews are used as a support instrument. To answer the research questions, data were collected using questionnaires built by researchers. This questionnaire instrument should describe the description of the constructed variable substance. 

In other words, the constructed theory (several theories) used to describe the variables must be translated into increments of questions in the instrument (questionnaire). In addition, the formulation/translation of the grid problem built on the questionnaire should be addressed in order to respond to the formulation of the indicated problem.

C. Formation of variable relationships 

The following research design is an example of the inference analysis flow used consisting of looking at the relationship that exists between the dependent variable and the independent variable. If in the search, it is indicated that the dependent variable concerns the performance of work. 

Can be designed by work according to who, for example, Evans (1981), Dharma (1985), Flippo (1987), Sinungan (1987), and Syarif (1987) show that work performance includes 

  1. Work productivity, 
  2. Work quality, 
  3. Work Initiative, 
  4. Work team and 
  5. Problem Solving, while the independent variable is about participatory leadership. 

For example, the research design (stored design) can, example, be taken from the opinion of Thomas J. Barry (1997) who states that participative leadership includes 

  1. Delegation, 
  2. Group meetings, 
  3. Work Teams, 
  4. Quality Education Teams, 
  5. Team improvement processes and 
  6. Project improvement teams.


Chua, Y. P. 2006. Educational methods and Statistics: Research Methods. Book 1. Kuala Lumpur: McGraw-Hill Education.

John W. Creswell and Vicki L. Plano Clark, Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007.

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