Therapy for Clients Addicted to Alcohol and Drugs


Therapy for Clients Addicted to Alcohol

 Drugs and their categorization

Drugs (narcotics, alcohol, psychotropic, and other addictive substances) are chemical substances that are introduced into the human body, either orally (through the mouth), or inhaled (through the nose). Another word that is often used is drugs (narcotics, psychotropics,s, and other dangerous substances). There are many terms used to denote the abuse of harmful substances. But the term that is often used is the term. Continuous use of drugs will result in physical and/or psychological dependence and damage to the nervous system and organs. Drugs consist of ingredients that are natural (natural) and synthetic (artificial). Natural materials come from plants/plants, while artificial ones come from chemicals.

1.      Drugs

Narcotics are substances made from natural or artificial (synthetic) materials, namely opium/cocaine or its derivatives and equivalents that have psychoactive effects. Narcotics are used for medical purposes, but many abuse them to obtain the psychoactive effects they produce. According to RI law No. 22 of 1997 on narcotics, narcotics are substances or drugs derived from plants or non-plants both synthetic and semi-synthetic that can cause a decrease or change in consciousness, loss of pain, and can cause dependence. Narcotics are divided into 3 groups as follows:

a.       Narcotics Group I:

1) it can only be used for the purpose of scientific development and is not used in therapy.

2) it has a very high potential to cause dependence.

Examples: heroin, cocaine, and marijuana.

b.      Narcotics Group II:

1) used for therapy and/or for scientific development purposes.

2) has a high potential to cause dependence.

Examples: morphine, pethidine, derivatives/salts in the group.\

c.       Narcotics Group III:

1) used for treatment and widely used in therapy and/or science development purposes

2) has a mild potential to cause dependence

Examples: codeine, and narcotic salts in the class.

2.      Alcohol

Alcohol is the active substance in various alcoholic beverages, containing ethanol which acts to suppress the central nerve.

3.      Psychotropic

Is a substance (usually in tablet form) that affects consciousness because the target of the drug is certain centers in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). According to law No.5 of 1997 on psychotropics, psychotropics include Extacy, methamphetamine, LSD, tranquilizers/sleep, antidepressants, and anti psychosis. Psychoactive are all substances that have a chemical composition and affect the brain to cause changes in behavior, feelings, thoughts, perceptions, and consciousness. 

According to RI law No. 5 of 1997 on psychotropics, psychotropics are substances or drugs, both natural and synthetic are not narcotics, which are efficacious psychoactive through selective influence on the central nervous system that causes typical changes in mental activity and behavior. Psychotropics are divided into 4 groups as follows :

a.       Group I psychotropics:

1) it can only be used for scientific purposes and is not used in therapy.

2) has very strong potential to cause dependence syndrome examples: MDMA, ecstasy, LSD, and ST.

        b.      Group II psychotropics:

        1) efficacious for treatment, hence often used in therapy and or for scientific purposes.

        2) has a strong potential to cause dependence syndrome.

Examples: amphetamine, phencyclidine, secobarbital, methaqualone, methylphenidate (Ritalin).

        c.       Group III psychotropics :

    1) efficacious for treatment, so it is widely used in therapy and or for scientific purposes.

    2) has a moderate potential to cause dependence syndrome.

    Examples: phenobarbital, and flunitrazepam.

        d.      Group IV psychotropics :

    1) efficacious for treatment as well as very widely used in therapy and or for scientific purposes.

    2) has a mild potential to cause dependence syndrome.

   Examples: diazepam, clobazam, bromazepam, clonazepam, Chlordiazepoxide,nitrazepam (BK, DUM MG).

       4.      Addictive Substances

Other addictive substances are substances that cause dependence. Examples are solvent substances, including inhalants (acetone, paint thinner, glue). These substances are very dangerous because they can kill brain cells. Nicotine (Tobacco) and caffeine (coffee) also belong to addictive substances. Drugs can be categorized as follows:

1. Based On Materials

a.   Natural. Taken from plants, such as: marijuana, opium, cocaine, mushrooms, cacti, tobacco, coffee, areca nut, and betel nut.

b.  Synthetic. Made from pharmaceutical chemicals or mixed with natural ingredients, such as amphetamines, codeine, and glue.

2. Based On The Effect Of Work

a.       Stimulating the Central Nervous System, which is a type of drug that can spur the work of the heart, pumping the lungs more vigorously and activating various hormone transmitters in the brain, causing a feeling of freshness and vigor.

b.      Depresses The Central Nervous System

Namely the type of drug that is able to slow the heart and pulse, slow down the work of the lungs and reduce the transmitter in the brain, causing drowsiness or a sense of calm

c.       Disorganization Of The Central Nervous System (Hallucinations)

That is, a type of drug that is able to affect the work of the central nervous system, brain and spine, so it is capable of causing hallucinations, seeing and feeling false reality

3. Based On How To Use

a.       Taken in the mouth (Oral)

b.      Injected into the body (injection)

c.       Placed inside the wound (usually an incision wound that is deliberately made)

d.      Sniffed/inhaled

e.       Inserted through the anus (anal insertion)

4. Based On Shape

a.       Liquid

b.      Pasta

c. Pills/capsules

d. Crystals/blocks

e.       Powder

f.       Gas

g.      Paper coating (impregnated paper)

        Addiction to alcohol and drugs.

According to the DSM-IV-TR distinguish between dependence and abuse. This distinction is not always used in the research literature. The term abuse is often used to refer to both aspects of excessive and harmful consumption (Davison, et al. 2006: 500). The abuse in question is the abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs.

Kadir (in Farida Harahap & Kartika Nur Fathiyah, 2005: 110) explained that alcohol and Drug Abuse is a pattern of abuse that is pathological, lasts a certain period of time, and causes social and occupational dysfunction.

1.      Types Of Illegal Drugs That Are Often Used

a.      Marijuana

b.      Sedatives; are one of a group of opiate drugs that includes opium, morphine, and heroin.

c.      Stimulants that include amphetamines and cocaine.

d.      Hallucinogens-LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin (Davison, 2006)

Sciarra (2004: 309) mentioned illegal drugs that are often used are alcohol, Sigarete, marijuana, Inhalant, Ecstasy, steroids, cocaine, and Heroin. From this opinion, it can be concluded that the types of illegal drugs that are abused are alcohol, marijuana, morphine, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, inhalants, ecstasy, steroids, and cigarettes.

2.      Factors causing addiction to alcohol and drugs.

According to Farida Harahap & Kartika Nur Fathiyah (2005: 111), addiction to alcohol and drugs is caused by two factors, namely:

a.       Social Environment

1) curious motives: in adolescence, it is common for a person to have curiosity, after which they want to try it, for example by analyzing alcohol, or other harmful substances.

2) there is opportunity. Parents are busy with their respective activities may also be due to a lack of affection from the family or as a result of a broken home.

2) facilities and infrastructure. Parents give excessive facilities and excessive money is a trigger to abuse the money to buy alcohol and drugs in order to satisfy their curiosity.

b.      Personality

1) low self-esteem. Feelings of inferiority in the community or in the school environment, adolescents overcome by abusing alcohol and illicit drugs. This is done to cover their shortcomings so that in the end the teenager gets what he wants more activity and courage.

2) emotional and mental. At this time, teenagers usually want to escape from all the rules of their parents. Weak metal a person will be more easily influenced by negative actions that eventually lead to the use of alcohol and drugs.

Meanwhile, according to Sciarra (2004:318), there are three factors that cause chemical abuse:

a.       Chaotic home environment.

b.      Ineffective parenting of parents. 

c.       Lack of affection and upbringing.  

From the above opinions, it can be concluded that the factors that cause addiction to alcohol and drugs are: (a). Social environmental factors due to curiosity to try, parents who are too busy, ineffective parenting, lack of affection for children and chaotic home environment, (b) personality caused by feelings of inferiority, feelings of detachment from all parental rules, and mental weakness.

3.      The consequences of addiction to alcohol and drugs.

According to Farida Harahap and Kartika Nur Fathiyah (2005:) there are several consequences of addiction to alcohol and drugs, namely:

              a.      Damage the central nervous system or damage other organs, such as the liver, kidneys, and diseases in the body such as red spots on the skin such as scabies. This results in weakening of the physical, mental and moral decline that tends to commit acts of social deviation in society.

           b.      Excessive side effects cause nausea, vomiting, headache, decreased appetite, decreased heart rate, frightening delusions, and convulsions. The effects caused can cause disturbances in the brain, heart, kidneys, liver, skin, and genitals, even resulting in death.

            c.      It psychologically leads to depression, apathy, irritability, and attention to the environment is also disturbed. In addition, making more courageous and aggressive, and uncontrolled bullae will cause actions that violate norms, and criminal and criminal acts.

According to Division (2006: 569) alcohol use has short-term and long-term effects that vary for humans, ranging from reduced ability to judge, to disruption of motor coordination, balance, speech, and vision are also weakened. The habit of drinking alcohol for a long time will cause severe biological damage, especially to the liver, as well as psychological deterioration.

While the negative effects of the use of illegal drugs are:

a.       Marijuana; causes damaged lungs, and cardiovascular system, weakened cognitive abilities, impairs fetal development, and impairs heart function.

b.      Sedative; addictive that slows down the activity of the body.

c.       Stimulant; addictive to increase alertness and motor activity.

d.      Hallucinogen-LSD; affects or expands consciousness, reflecting the human desire not only to run away from an unpleasant reality but also to delve into the territory within oneself.

From the above opinion it can be concluded that the use of alcohol and drugs in reasonable quantities can be used as a drug but when its use is abused it causes negative effects ranging from irritability, attention to the disturbed environment, reduced ability to judge, disruption of motor coordination, balance, speech, and vision are also weakened. More severe negative effects cause severe biological damage, especially to the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, damage to the central nervous system, and psychological deterioration


References

Davison, G., Neale, J.M. & Kring, A.M. 2006. Psikologi Abnormal. Jakarta: PT raja Grafindo Persada.
Erford, T. 2004. Professional School Counseling: a Handbook of Theories, Program & Practice. Texas: CAPs Press.
Farida Harahap & Kartika Nur Fathiyah. 2005. Diktat Kuliah Psikololgi Abnormal Klinis. Yogayakarta: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta.
Sciarra. D.T. 2004. School Counseling Foundations and Contemporary Issues. Canada: Thomson

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