Surveillance Research Methods In Health


In epidemiology, especially the eradication of infectious diseases, research must be carried out continuously to determine the development of the diseases in question. Research that is constantly carried out in order to monitor the development of a disease is called surveillance. Surveillance (surveillance) means continuous observation of a disease or a group or community. 

Observations in the context of surveillance can be carried out on the incidence of diseases, both infectious and non-communicable diseases, and treatment of public health status, through indicators such as mortality, morbidity, infant mortality, maternal mortality, nutritional status, environmental pollution, and so on. From surveillance, information will be obtained that can be used to fulfill program planning needs or assess program success.

Surveillance of certain diseases such as pulmonary TB disease relates to the observation and continuous recording of the incidence of pulmonary TB disease in a particular work area, and its spread both based on the location of the incident, sex, age, and other community characteristics. 

Likewise, demographic surveillance refers to the continuous calculation of the number of inhabitants, and the composition of the population by sex, age, and other characteristics of the population.

Surveillance is often identified with monitoring or monitoring. When viewed from the process, surveillance is the monitoring of an event, especially the incidence of disease, but accompanied by action. 

Proper Monitoring, in fact, must also be accompanied by action or improvement efforts. This means that in monitoring programs or activities, if there are things that are not in accordance with what should be, then action or improvement must also be taken. Thus, it can be said that surveillance is the monitoring of an event related to the development of Public Health, in particular, the incidence of disease in society.

Surveillance or monitoring can be done once in a certain period of time through special surveys, such as Morbidity Surveys. Surveillance can also be used in a health service as a routine procedure, such as determining and registering births, deaths, and displacements, reporting infectious diseases, and so on.


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Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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