Quantitative, Qualitative Research Strategies

Research Strategies 

Researchers should not only choose qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods of research to apply; they should also determine the type of research in the three options. Research strategies are types of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method research designs that establish specific procedures in research. Some people refer to research strategies as research approaches (Creswell, 2007) or research methodologies (Mertens, 1998).

The strategies available to researchers actually emerged many years ago when computer technology accelerated our activities in analyzing the data. These strategies are present when humans are able to articulate new procedures in conducting social scientific research.

Quantitative Research Strategies

During the late XIX and early XX centuries, research strategies related to quantitative design always involved a post-positivist worldview. These strategies include real experiments, less rigid experiments often referred to as quasi-experiments and correlational research (Campbell & Stanley, 1963), and single-subject experiments (Cooper, Heron, & Heward,1987; Neuman &McCormick, 1995).

Today, however, quantitative strategies already involve more complex experiments with all variables and their treatments (such as factorial designs and repeated measure designs). 

Quantitative strategies also include slightly complex structural equation models, which usually include methods of causality and identification of the strengths of multiple variables. In this book, I only focus on two quantitative research strategies, namely surveys and experiments.

a. Survey research 

Survey research seeks to quantitatively describe the tendencies, attitudes, or opinions of a particular population by examining a sample of that population. This research includes cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that use questionnaires or planned interviews in data collection, with the aim of generalizing the population based on a predetermined sample (Babbie, 1990).

b. Experimental research 

Experimental research attempts to determine whether treatment affects the outcome of a study. This effect is assessed by applying certain treatments to one group (often called treatment groups, pend.) and did not apply it to another group (often called the control group, Penj.), Ialu determines how the two groups determine the final result. This study includes actual experiments with random assignment of subjects treated under certain conditions and quasi-experiments with non-random procedures (Keepel 1991). Included in the quasi-experiment is a single-subject design.

Qualitative Strategies

Qualitative research and its strategies have begun to emerge throughout the 1990s and into the XX century. Not a few books have discussed this qualitative strategy (such as 19strategies introduced by Wolcott, 2001). In fact, certain approaches in qualitative research already have complete and clear procedures. For example, Clandinin danConnelly (2000) has made a comprehensive description of what a narrative researcher should do. 

Moustakas (1994) has also discussed philosophical doctrines and procedures in the phenomenological method, while Strauss and Corbin (1990,1998) introduced procedures for grounded theory researchers. Wolcott (1999) describes ethnographic procedures, and Stake (1995) recommends a number of processes to be carried out in case study research. 

There are several qualitative research strategies according to Creswell as follows:

a. Ethnography 

Ethnography is one of the qualitative research strategies in which researchers investigate a cultural group in the natural environment for a long enough period of time in the collection of primary data, observation data, and interview data (Creswell, 2007b). The research process is flexible and usually develops according to the conditions in response to the realities of life encountered in the field (LeCompte &Schensul, 1999).

b. Grounded theory 

Grounded theory is a research strategy in which the researcher "produces" a general and abstract theory of a particular process, action, or interaction derived from the views of the participants. This design requires researchers to undergo a number of stages of data collection and filtering categories of information obtained (Charmaz, 2006; Strauss and Corbin, 1990, 1998). This design has two main characteristics, namely: (1) constant comparison between data and emerging categories and (2)theoretical sampling of different groups to maximize similarities and differences in information.

c. A case study 

A case study is a research strategy in which the researcher carefully investigates a program, event, activity, process, or group of individuals. Cases are limited by time and activity, and researchers collect complete information using various data collection procedures based on a predetermined time (Stake, 1995

d. Phenomenology 

Phenomenology is a research strategy in which the researcher identifies the nature of human experience about a particular phenomenon. Understanding human life experiences makes phenomenological philosophy a research method whose procedures require researchers to study a number of subjects with direct and relatively long involvement in them to develop patterns and relationships of meaning (Moustakas,1994). In this process, the researcher sets aside his personal experiences so that he can understand the experiences of the participants he is talking about(Nieswiadomy,1993).

e. Narrative

The narrative is a research strategy in which researchers investigate the lives of individuals and ask a person or group of individuals to tell their lives. This information is then retold by researchers in the narrative chronology. At the end of the research phase, the researcher must combine the narrative style of his views on the life of the participants with his views on the life of the researcher himself (Clandinin &Connelly,2000).

Source:

Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, John W. (2017). Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach


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