Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods and Procedures

Research Methods and Procedures

In the research, according to Chua, there are various inquiry methods that guide researchers toward solving problems and issues in research. 

The methods are the positivist method, interpretative method, and critical method (critical).

A) Positivist Method

The positivist method emphasizes the accuracy of research evidence by using numerical analysis. Experimental research and surveys are among the methods widely used in the positivist trend. 

Positivist researchers conduct research to understand the patterns of human activity and make predictions through the method of identifying, measuring, and expressing the relationship between variables in the phenomenon under study with precise estimates.

Through the constructed hypothesis, the researcher tests the relationship by randomly selecting a group of subjects (one sample) from the population. The results obtained from the study sample are then generalized to all subjects in the population.

B) Interpretive Method

Interpretative methods describe a phenomenon using verbal descriptive data. It emphasizes verbal analysis rather than numerical analysis. Among the research that is often used is field research that uses observation and interviews as research data collection techniques.

These studies usually describe the characteristics of a small number of research subjects in a thorough and in-depth. For example, researchers conducted a study of a small number of City students who obtained brilliant national exam results. In these cases, the researcher attaches importance to the quality of the data he collects. Interpretative Method Research is more in favor of qualitative research.

C) Critical Method

Critical methods are used by certain researchers to improve their social and humanitarian situations. This research is conducted to understand the relationship between groups in society and how social change is realized. Therefore, researchers use historical sources and secondary data that exist in comparative research. 

The results of the research in this study are valid if they can be applied to improve social conditions. Critical method research is more in favor of quantitative research. The three methods above are fundamental in qualitative and quantitative research.

    1. Characteristics of quantitative and Qualitative Research

Research is usually categorized into qualitative research and quantitative research. There is also research that combines the two, which is usually called mixed methods research2 or blending research. The two categories of qualitative and quantitative research generally differ in terms of research methods and techniques used, differ in terms of objectives, concepts, designs, samples, the way data is obtained, data analysis, and instrumentation.

    2. Research Procedure

Regardless of whether it is qualitative research, quantitative, mixed methods research, or research and development (R & D) research is an effort and systematic scientific discipline conducted to provide answers to problems or issues. Therefore, according to Chua4, before a study is carried out, the research problem needs to be stated clearly and precisely, so that the research design is designed based on the research problem and the research carried out to give the right answer to the research problem.

            a) Research problems

The research problem is the core issue in research. By knowing the problem in research, it means that a researcher understands the problem of research carried out. Researchers who do not understand the research problem, it will be difficult to identify and answer the existing problem. The real problem is the gap between theory and practice.

In other words, ideally, the theory says/reveals that something should ideally happen, but in reality, this is not the case on the ground. The position of the problem here can be said to be a problem in research, is when in practice something that is found does not work ideally (not in accordance with the theory put forward by experts (in journals, books, proceedings, etc.) with the practice found in the field/location).

        b) Research objectives

According to Chua, the study was conducted to give an answer to “uncertainty”. Researchers carry out their research because they are not sure of a case or phenomenon that has been, is, or has not occurred. The researcher cannot ascertain uncertainty based solely on his or her own views by referring to the knowledge or experience he or she is going through, because his or her views and knowledge may be influenced by his or her subjective elaboration.

This subjective description may arise from beliefs, cultures, traditions, stereotypes, misconceptions, and the influence of those in power. According To Conny R. Semiawan7 the main purpose of qualitative research is to capture the deepest meaning/understanding (verstehen) of an event, symptom, the fact of occurrence, reality, or a particular problem and not to study or prove the existence of a causal relationship or correlation of a problem or event.


Chua, Y. P. 2006. Educational methods and Statistics: Research Methods. Book 1. Kuala Lumpur: McGraw-Hill Education.

John W. Creswell and Vicki L. Plano Clark, Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, California: Sage Publications, Inc., 2007.

Jr. Raco, and Conny R. Semiawan (Introduction). 2010. Qualitative Research Methods. Cikarang (Jakarta): Grasindo.

R. Murray Thomas, Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations, California: Corwin Press, Inc., 2003.

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