Psychological Foundations Of Education

 Psychological Of Education

A.      Understanding The Foundations Of Educational Psychology

Psychology comes from the Greek word psycho which means spirit, soul, or life force, and logos can be interpreted as science. So etymologically psychology means:” the science that studies the psyche, both regarding its symptoms, its processes, and its background". Psychology is a concrete science or science that studies the behavior of organisms in relation to their environment.   

According to Barlow (in Romlah, 2010:24), educational psychology is “a knowledge based on psychological research that makes a series of resources to help someone in carrying out their duties as teachers in the learning process effectively”. 

The pressure point of this understanding is the interaction between teachers and students in the classroom. The teacher is someone who is obliged or in charge of teaching in which there is a series of teaching, while the student is a group of individuals who are learning and in which there are learning strategies, influencing factors, and achievements achieved.

From the structure of interdisciplinary relations with other social sciences, especially to education, psychology also provides a foundation, namely in terms of behavioral coaching. Because basically, behavior improvement is the main target of Education. 

As a behavioral science, psychology specifically directs its study activities towards psychiatric phenomena. The facts show that because the potential of psychology tends to change and develop gradually, human behavior tends to change and develop gradually as well. 

Therefore, the implementation of education in terms of developing educational materials must also be adjusted to the stages. In this case, all educational implementation activities are deemed necessary to be developed based on the developmental psychology of students.

B.      Uses Of Educational Psychology

Learners are the subject of Educational Psychology, and it can not be separated from the behavior of expressing themselves in the situation of ongoing learning, both in the classroom and outside the classroom. 

The form of expression carried out by students cannot be separated from elements of psychology, such as their readiness to accept lessons, mentor/educator has paid attention to their various expressions, then it is easy for educators to provide motivation to learn from students. 

Educational psychology is very useful for educators, teachers, and parents in order to al the health they experience, interest in learning, and others. If the teach

  1. To teach and to teach to the disciples, in accordance with the development of their souls.
  2. Know and understand the existence of each student as a whole either individually or in groups.
  3. Treat students in accordance with the state of the soul experienced.
  4. Assist students in overcoming personal problems faced.
  5. Establish the right psychological action in teaching-learning.

C.      Forms Of Educational Psychology

There are three forms of educational psychology, namely:

a. Psychological Development

There are three theories or approaches to development. The approaches in question are: (Nana Syaodih, 1989).

  1. In- The phasing approach is the development of the individual that goes through certain stages. Each stage has special characteristics that are different from the characteristics of other stages.
  2. Differential approach, this approach is seen that individuals have similarities and differences. On this basis then people create groups. Children who have something in common are made into a group. So there were groups based on gender, intellectual ability, talent, race, socioeconomic status, and so on
  3. The ipsative approach, this approach seeks to see the characteristics of each individual, can be referred to as an individual approach. See the progress of an individual

Of these three approaches, the most implemented is the phasing approach. There are two kinds of phasing approach that is comprehensive and specific. Comprehensive will include all aspects of development as a factor that is taken into account in preparing the stages of development, while the Special only consider certain factors as the basis for preparing the Stages of Child Development.

Developmental psychology according to Rousseau (Pidarta, 2007:200) divides child development into four stages :

  • Infancy from 0 – 2 years is mostly physical development.
  • Childhood from 2 – 12 years old is expressed as a new development of primitive human life.
  • The period of puberty from 12-15 years, is characterized by the development of the mind and willingness to adventure.
  • Adolescence period of 15 – 25 years, prominent sexual growth, social, conscience, and moral. This teenager has begun to learn cultured.

According to Jean Piaget (Pidarta, 2007:203), there are four levels of development of cognition, namely:

The sensorimotor period at the age of 0-2 years.

The child's abilities are limited to reflex movements. Intellectual reactions are almost entirely due to direct stimulation of the sensory apparatus. Have a habit of banging and playing with his game. Start can name the names of specific objects.

The preoperative period at the age of 2 – 7 years.

The language development of this child is very rapid. The role of intuition in deciding something is still great, deducing a small part of the known. Rational analysis has not worked.

The period of concrete operations at the age of 7-11 years.

They are able to think logically, and systematically, and solve concrete problems. They are already able to work on addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

The period of formal operation at the age of 11 – 15 years.

These children are able to think logically about both concrete and abstract problems. Can shape ideas and a realistic future.

b. Psychology Of Learning

Learning psychology according to Pidarta (2007: 206) learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience (not the result of development, the influence of drugs or accidents) and can carry out on other knowledge and be able to communicate it to others.

There are a number of learning principles according to Gagne (1979) as follows:

  • Contiguity, providing situations or materials similar to the expectations of the educator about the expected response of the child, several times in a row.
  • Repetition, the child's situations, and responses are repeated or practiced in order to learn more perfectly and be better remembered.
  • Reinforcement, correct response for example is rewarded for maintaining and reinforcing that response.
  • Positive motivation and confidence in learning.
  • There is complete lesson material to provoke children's activities in learning.
  • Aspects of the child's psyche should be able to be influenced by factors in teaching.

Psychologists tend to use patterns of human behavior as a model for learning principles. These learning principles are then commonly referred to as learning theories.

  1. Classical learning theory can still be used, among others, to memorize multiplication and train problems (mental discipline). Naturalist theory can be used in out-of-school education, especially lifelong education.
  2. The theory of learning behaviorism is useful in developing real behaviors, such as being diligent, getting high scores, not fighting, and so on.
  3. The theory of learning cognition is useful in studying complex materials that require understanding, solving problems, and developing ideas.

c. Social Psychology

Social psychology according to Hollander (1981) social psychology is psychology that studies the psychology of a person in society, which combines the characteristics of psychology with social science to study the influence of society on individuals and between individuals (quoted Pidarta, 2007:219).

The formation of the first impression of others has three main keys.

  • That person's personality. Perhaps we have heard about that person before or stories similar to that person, especially about his personality.
  • The man's behavior. When you see the person's behavior after dealing, then relate it to the stories you've heard.
  • Background situation. The two data above are then associated with the situation at that time, then from the combination of the three data will come out the first impression about the person.

In the world of Education, a positive first impression raised by educators will give children the Will and spirit of learning. Motivation is also a social psychological aspect because without a certain motivation person is difficult to socialize in society. Therefore, educators have an obligation to explore the motivation of children to appear, so that they are happy to learn in school.

According to Klinger (quoted Pidarta, 2007:222) the factors that determine learning motivation is.

  • Interests and needs of the individual.
  • Perception of the difficulty of the tasks.
  • The hope of success.

D. Implications of Psychology in the concept of Education

An overview of Developmental Psychology, Learning Psychology, Social Psychology, and learning readiness as well as individual aspects, gives implications to the concept of Education. Implications to the concept of education, General developmental psychology, which is oriented to affection and cognition, all gives instructions to educators and how to develop children so that they will learn voluntarily.

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