Problems and Urgency in Research

Problems in Research

A. Understanding the problem in research

The problem is not something imaginative or as if there is a problem.  For Gall, Gall (2003) research problems generally determine the final value of research more than any other aspect.  The process of finding research problems and studying them, is a significant step in professional development.  When looking for research problems, it is important to keep in mind some of the benefits that can be obtained from conducting research.

On the other hand, for Creswell (2015) it is a problem, polemic, or learning problem that guides the need to do some research.  For Sugiyono (2011) problems can be referred to as deviations between what is appropriate and what is really intertwined, between theory and practice, between provisions and implementation, and between plans and implementation.

Based on this interpretation, the research problem is a problem or statement that reports about the situation that requires solving through research.  More specifically, the research problem is a question that asks for the relationship between research variables.  Another interpretation shows that the problem is the gap between das solen and das sain.  The problem can also be said to be the gap between theory and application.

For Sugiyono (2011), the source of the problem comes from there are deviations between experience and reality, there are deviations between what has been planned and reality, there are complaints and there is competition.

B. The urgency of the problem in research

The problem is something that is meaningful and central in research.  That means, because research cannot be tried without problems.  It is said to be central, because in almost all stages of research, such as the background of the problem, research objectives, theoretical studies, arrangement of research instruments, conclusions, recommendations and so on, all of which will lead to cases that have already been formulated.

For Creswell (2015), studying research cases so that we can help policy makers when they make policies, help teachers and school officials to solve instant problems, help college administrators when they need to make decisions, and share more in-depth explanations with researchers.  about various learning problems.  From a research point of view, determining the research case in research is meaningful because it is preparation for all research.  Without recognizing the case for research, readers do not know why the research is meaningful and why they need to read the research.

 Criteria for cases in research

 The research to be tried always starts from the problem so as to obtain information that can be used to uncover the problem.  In writing about the research case, the author states it as a single sentence or part of a sentence in the research report.  For Creswell(2015) to create a research case in a research project, ask yourself the following questions:

  •  What issues, problems, or polemics do researchers want to address?
  •  What polemics gave rise to the need to carry out this research?
  •  What is the problem "behind" this research?
  •  Is there a sentence like "The case handled in this research is...?

A very important consideration in conducting research is to ensure that the problem is appropriate for the research.  For Creswell (2015) the problems in research that have appropriate criteria or can be researched are:

Can you gain access to people and places?  To study a case, researchers need to obtain permission to explore a place and to engage people in research positions (for example, access to lower schools to study children at an early age).

Can you create time, create energy resources, and use your skills? Moreover, if you can gain access to the people and places needed for your research, your ability to study the case will also depend on your time, resources and research skills.

Time, When designing a research, the researcher should estimate the time required for information gathering and analysis of information.  Qualitative research generally takes more time than quantitative research.

Resources, Researchers need resources such as funds for equipment, for participants, and for people transcribing interviews.  Researchers need to create a budget and get advice from other experienced professionals about whether the estimated expenses are realistic.

Skills, The expertise of the researcher also affects the totality of whether the research on a particular case is realistic.  Researchers need to acquire certain research skills in order to study a case effectively – skills acquired through lectures, training, and previous research experience.

 There are 5 ways to determine whether a researcher should study a case:

  1. Studying the problem if research is to fill a gap or void in the existing literature.  Some research fills the void by covering topics that have not been addressed in the published literature.
  2. Studying the problem is when research replicates previous research but examines different participants and different research sites.  The value of research increases when the results can apply more broadly to many people than just the area in which early research is involved.  This type of research is very meaningful in quantitative experiments.  In quantitative research on ethical issues, for example, previous research conducted at liberal arts colleges could be tested (or replicated) in other places, for example at community colleges or major study universities.  Data from such research is to share new knowledge.
  3. Study the problem if the research expands on previous research or examines the topic more closely.  A good research case to research is one in which you expand your research into a new topic or field or simply do your research again at a deeper and more thorough level to master the topic.
  4. Studying the problem when research gives voice to people who are not allowed to speak, are not listened to, or are rejected in the community.  Research increases knowledge by presenting the inspiration and words of those who are marginalized (for example, the homeless, women, or racial groups).
  5. Study the problem if your research is sharing instant data.  By examining the case, your research may want to allow identification of new methods or technologies, recognition of the value of historical or current applications, or the need to replace current teaching applications (Creswell, 2015)

 Source

Creswell, John.  W. 2015. Educational Research: planning, implementation, and evaluation of qualitative & quantitative research (fifth ed.).  Yogjakarta: Student library

Danim, Sudarwan.  2002. Becoming a Qualitative Researcher.  Bandung: Faithful Library

Gall, M.D., Gall, J.P., & Borg, W.R.  2003. Educational Research: An Introduction.  New York: Pearson Education, Inc

Sugiyono.  2011. Combined research methods (mix methods).  Bandung: Alphabeta

Usman, H. & Purnomo, 2008. Social Research Methodology.  Jakarta: PT.  Earth Literature.

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