Placement Theory in Quantitative Research.

Theory in Quantitative Research.

In quantitative research, researchers use the theory deductively and put it at the beginning of the research proposal. Because the purpose is to test or verify a theory, quantitative researchers should propose a theory, collect data to test the theory, and declare confirmation or disconfirmation of the theory based on the results obtained.

The theory becomes a framework for the entire research that will function to organize the formulation of problems and research hypotheses and data collection procedures. 

Deductive thinking model applied in quantitative research researchers verify a theory by testing the formulation of the problem or hypothesis-hypothesis derived from this theory. 

The hypothesis or formulation contains variables (constructs) that need to be defined by the researcher or need to be adjusted to the definitions contained in the literature. 

From here, researchers use a research instrument to measure the attitudes or behaviors of the participants. Then, the researcher collects the scores obtained from these instruments confirming or confirming the theory.

In essence, the deductive approach applied in quantitative research also influences the laying of theories in it. The general guideline is to introduce the theory at the beginning of the research proposal: 

In the introduction, in the literature review, after the hypothesis or formulation of the problem (as a rationalization of the relationship between variables), or in a special chapter/ subsection. Each of these placements has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Tips for carrying out research according to Creswell (2017) in his book explains that it is better to write a theory, written in a separate section in the research proposal so that readers can easily identify the theory from other components. By putting the theory in a special section, you can give an adequate explanation of the theory, its functions, and its relationship with the research.


Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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