Mixed Method Research Approach

Mixed Method Strategies

Mixed method strategies are actually less popular than the previous two strategies (quantitative and qualitative). The concept of" mixing different methods " actually emerged in 1959 when Campbell and Fisk used multi-methods in examining the truth of psychological dispositions. 

They then encouraged others to use their plural-method matrix to test the possibility of using multiple approaches in the collection of research data. Starting from this, many people then mix methods and approaches related to these methods, for example, they combine observation and interview methods (qualitative data) with traditional survey methods (quantitative data)(Sieber, 1973).

By realizing that each method must have shortcomings and limitations, researchers of mixed methods finally believe that the biases that appear in one method can neutralize or eliminate biases in other methods. Triangulation of data sources (triangulation of data resources) a method of finding convergence between qualitative and quantitative methods emerged (Jick, 1979). 

In the early 1990s, the idea of "mixing" began to shift from trying to find convergence to the actual merging of quantitative and qualitative data. For example, the results of one method can help another, especially in identifying the participants studied or the questions asked(Thashakkori& Teddlie, 1998). 

In addition, qualitative and quantitative data can be combined into one large database that can be used side by side to reinforce each other (for example, qualitative quotas can support statistical results) (Creswell& Plano Clark, 2007). 

Otherwise, a combination of the two methods can be applied to achieve broad and transformative goals, for example, in advocating for marginalized groups, such as women, ethnic/racial minorities, gay and lesbian communities, people with disabilities, and the poor/infirm (Mertens' 2003).

The possibility of a number of methods mixed "into one" has led experts to develop research procedures based on mixed methods. Until now, the terms to refer to the design of mixed methods are very diverse, such as multi-method, convergence method, integrated method, and combination method (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007), which have their own procedures (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003).

Specifically, there are three mixed method strategies and a number of variations that will be illustrated in this book:

1. Sequential mixed methods

Sequential mixed methods are procedures in which the researcher tries to combine or expand the discoveries he finds from one method with his discoveries from other methods. This strategy can be done by conducting qualitative interviews first to get adequate explanations, then followed by quantitative survey methods with a number of samples to obtain general results from a population. 

If not, this research can be started from quantitative methods first by testing a particular theory or concept, then followed by qualitative methods by exploring a number of cases and individuals.

2. Concurrent mixed methods

Concurrent mixed methods are procedures in which researchers bring together or unify quantitative data and qualitative data to obtain a comprehensive analysis of the research problem. In this strategy, researchers collect the two types of data at one time, then combine them into one piece of information in the interpretation of the overall results. 

Otherwise, in this strategy, the researcher can insert one smaller type of data into a larger set of data to analyze different types of questions (for example, if qualitative methods are applied to carry out the research, quantitative methods can be applied to know the final result).

3. Transformative mixed methods

Transformative mixed methods procedures are procedures in which researchers use theoretical glasses as an overarching perspective which consists of quantitative data and qualitative data. It is this perspective that will provide the framework for the research topic, methods for data collection, and expected results or changes. In fact, this perspective can be used by researchers as a method of collecting data sequentially or concurrently.

Source

Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications

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