Methods and paradigms of quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research

Methods and Research Paradigms 

The third component in the research framework is method-specific research methods related to data collection, analysis, and interpretation strategies. the researcher needs to consider a number of data collection methods and address them in a systematic manner, for example, based on the level of the method the nature of the research object, the function of the method when the researcher uses closed and open questions, and the focus of the method on the analysis of non-numerical or non-numerical data. 

The researcher collects data with the help of instruments or tests (such as questions about self-esteem) or collects information with the help of a behavioral checklist(such as observation of a worker engaged in complex skills). 

On the other hand, data collection can also involve the researcher directly visiting the research site and observing the behavior of individuals in it without any questions being provided beforehand or actively wawan ways for these individuals to express their ideas about the research topic, without having to provide specific questions.

The choice of this method must ultimately be adjusted to the intention of the researcher; whether the researcher intends to dig up the desired information or let it appear from the participants. Or, whether the researcher wants to analyze the type of data in the form of numerical information collected from research instruments or textual information collected from recordings of the results of conversations with participants. Or, whether researchers want to interpret statistical results or they want to interpret general trends or patterns that emerge from the research data.

In a number of studies, quantitative and qualitative data can be collected, analyzed, and interpreted together. Instrument Data can be supplemented by open observation, or census data can be followed by in-depth interviews. However, in the case of mixed methods, the researcher makes inferences between quantitative data and qualitative data.

Quantitative research-post-positivist worldview, experimental research strategies, and behavioral pre - dan post-test methods

In this scenario, quantitative researchers test a theory by detailing specific hypotheses and then collecting data to support or refute those hypotheses. Experimental strategies are applied to assess behaviors, both before and after the experimental process. The data were collected with the help of special instruments designed to assess behaviors, while the information was analyzed using statistical procedures and hypothesis testing.

Qualitative research-constructivist worldview, strategi ethnographic, and behavioral observation methods

In this case, quantitative researchers try to build meaning about a phenomenon based on the views of the participants. For example, researchers apply ethnographic strategies by trying to identify a culture-sharing community, and then examine how the community develops different patterns of behavior at one time. One of the data collection methods for this kind of strategy is by observing the behavior of the participants by being directly involved in their activities.

Qualitative research-participatory worldview, strategic, and open interview methods

For this study, researchers tried to investigate an issue related to the marginalization of certain individuals. To examine this issue, stories are collected from these individuals using a narrative approach. These individuals were then interviewed to find out how they personally experienced oppression and marginalization.

Mixed method research-pragmatic worldview, quantitative and qualitative data collection strategies/methods sequentially

Researchers with this mixed method conduct research with the assumption that collecting various types of data that are considered the best can provide an overall understanding of the problem under study. This research can be started with a broad survey in order to generalize the results of the study of the population that has been determined. Then, in the next stage, an open qualitative interview is conducted in order to collect the views of the participants.


Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.

Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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