Important Components In Research Design

Components In Research Design

There are two pressing points in each definition: that a research approach always involves philosophical assumptions and different methods or procedures. Research design, which I refer to as a plan or proposal for conducting research, involves the relationship between philosophical assumptions, research strategies, and specific methods. 

In detail, in planning research, researchers need to consider three important components, namely: (1) the philosophical worldview they bring to their research, (2) research strategies related to these assumptions, and (3) specific methods or procedures that can translate these strategies into real practice.

Some Philosophical Worldview

Although most philosophical ideas are hidden in a study (Slife & William, 1995), they still influence research practice and need to be identified. In this regard, Creswell recommends that anyone who is preparing a proposal or research plan should clarify the philosophical ideas they are exposed to. This explanation will necessarily reflect the reasons why they need to choose-quantitative, quantitative approaches, or mixed methods in research.

In explaining the philosophical worldview, the researcher needs to at least include in his proposal a special section that discusses a number of subsequent points:
  • A philosophical worldview is proposed in the study.
  • Basic considerations why the worldview is used
  • How that worldview shapes research approaches.
There are four worldviews that will be discussed this time: post-positivism, constructivism, advocacy/participatory, and pragmatism. Important elements in any view of the study are as follows:

Post-positivism

  • Determination
  • Reductionism
  • Empirical observation and testing
  • Verification of theory

Constructivism

  • Understanding
  • Meaning of the participle
  • Social and historical construction
  • Creation of theories

Advocacy / Participatory

  • Political nature
  • Oriented on empowerment issues
  • Collaborative
  • Oriented to change

Pragmatism

  • Action effects
  • Focus on the problem
  • Pluralistic In Nature
  • Real-world practice-oriented

Post-positivism worldview

Positivism represents a traditional form of research, the truth of which is more often attributed to quantitative research than to qualitative research. This worldview is sometimes referred to as the scientific method or scientific research. Some refer to it as positivist/post-positivist research, empirical science, and post-positivism. 
The latter term is called post-positivism because it represents post-positivism, which opposes the traditional notion of the absolute truth of science (Phillips & Burbules, 2000), and recognizes that we cannot continue to be "positive" in our claims to knowledge when we examine human behavior and actions.

Phillips and Burbules's (2000) in their book explain a number of basic assumptions that are at the core of the post-positivist research paradigm, including:
  1. Knowledge is conjectural (and anti-fundamental)that we will never get to the absolute truth. For this reason, the evidence built up in research is often weak and imperfect. For this reason, many researchers argue that they cannot prove their hypothesis; in fact, they often fail to disprove their hypothesis.
  2. Research is the process of making claims, then filtering some of these claims into "other claims" whose truth is much stronger. most quantitative research, for example, always begins with testing a theory.
  3. Knowledge is formed by data, evidence, and logical considerations. In practice, researchers collect information by using certain measurement instruments filled by participants or by conducting in-depth observations at the research site.
  4. Research must be able to develop relevant and correct state-States, statements that can explain the actual situation or can describe the causality relationship of a problem. In quantitative research, researchers create relationships between variables and put them forward in the form of questions and hypotheses'
  5. The most important aspect of research is objectivity; researchers must reexamine biased methods and conclusions. for this reason, in quantitative research, validity and reliability standards. into two important speak that must be considered by researchers.

Social Constructivism Worldview

Other groups have a different view of the world. One is the worldview of social constructivism (which is often combined with interpretivism) (see Merters,1998). This worldview is usually viewed as an approach to qualitative research. The idea of social constructivism originated in Mannheim and books such as Berger and Luckmann's. 

The Social Construction of Reality (1967) and Lincoln and Guba's naturalistic Inquiry (1985). Today, writers are keen to study the paradigm of social constructivism, among others Lincoln and Guba (2000), Schwandt (2007, Neuman (2000), and Crotty (1998).

Related to this constructivism, Crotty (1995) introduced a number of assumptions:
  1. They are created by human beings so that they can understand the world they are living in. Qualitative researchers tend to use open-ended questions so that participants can express their views.
  2. People are constantly engaged with their world and trying to understand it based on their own historical and social perspectives – we are all born into the world of meaning bestowed by the cultures around us. Qualitative researchers must understand the context or background of their participants by visiting the context and collecting the required information themselves. They must also interpret what they are looking for: an interpretation shaped by their own experiences and backgrounds.
  3. That creates meaning essentially in the social environment, which arises inside and outside the interaction with the human community. The qualitative research process is inductive in which the researcher creates meaning from the collected field data.

Advocacy and participatory worldview

Another group has philosophical assumptions based on an advocacy/participatory approach. This approach emerged from the 1980s to the 1990s from a number of people who felt that post-positivist assumptions had imposed structural laws and theories that often did not include marginalized individuals in our society or social justice issues that needed to be raised. This worldview seems to be compatible with qualitative research, but it can also be the basis for quantitative research.

The advocacy / participatory worldview assumes that research must be linked to politics and political agendas. For this reason, this research generally has an accidental agenda of reform that is expected to change the lives of participants, the institutions in which they live and work, and the lives of researchers themselves.

In addition, this worldview blinds that there are certain issues that need to get more attention, especially issues concerning social life today, such as empowerment, injustice, oppression, domination, oppression, and exile. Researchers can start their research with one of these issues as the focus of their research.

Source

Creswell, J.W. (1999) Mixed method research: Introduction and application. In G.J. Cizek (Ed.). Handbook of educational policy (pp. 455-472). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choos¬ing among Five Approaches ( 3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Creswell, J.W. (2008). Educational Research: Ptoming, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Creswell, J.W. & Brown, M.L. (1992, Fall). How chairpersons enhance faculty research: A grounded theory study. The Review of Higher Education, 16(1), 41-62.
Creswell, J.W., & Miller, D. (2000). Determining validity in qualita¬tive inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124-130.
Creswell, J.W. & Piano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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