Historical Of World Education

Historical Of Education

A.      History of World Education

The educational movement colors a nation's history because of the urge to enrich science and or the desire to change the condition of a people in a better state.  

The course of the history of World Education has been going on for a long time, starting from the time of Hellenism (150 BC-500).  There are several epochs that have an influence on the world of education, namely the epochs:

1.  The Age Of Realism

The educational figures of this age of realism were Francis Bacon and Johann Amos Comenius. The essence of the realism school view of education includes: children must learn from nature, learn by an inductive method, attach importance to children's activities, prioritize understanding, expression of words to express understanding becomes important, learning through mother tongue, learning assisted by pictures, the material is learned one by one from easy to difficult, lessons adapted to the development of children, education is democratic that is for all children.

2.   The Age Of Rationalism

This stream gives power to man to think for himself and act for himself, therefore the indispensable exercise of his own knowledge and act for himself. The educational figure of this age in the 18th century was John Locke. His famous theory is Leon Tabularasa or a blank sheet of paper, that is, educating is like writing on a white paper, and the freedom and power of reason that human beings have been used to shape their own knowledge.

3.   The Age Of Naturalism

As a reaction to the flow of rationalism, in the 18th century came the flow of naturalism with his character, J. J. Rousseau. This school opposes unnatural life as a result of rationalism, such as corruption, contrived lifestyle, and so on. Naturalism wants a balance between the power of the ratio with the heart and nature as the teacher, so education is carried out naturally (natural education). Naturalism states that humans are driven by their needs, and can find the way of truth within themselves (Mudyaharjo, 2008: 118). According to Rousseau, there are three principles of teaching, namely:

Teaching should provide opportunities for children to grow reasonably by employing them, according to their needs.

  • The principle of activity, through work children, will become active, which will give experience, which will later become their knowledge.
  • The principle of individuality, by preparing education according to the individuality of each child, so that they develop according to their own nature.

4.  The Age Of Developmentalism

The age of developmentalism flourished in the 19th century. This school views education as a process of mental development so this flow is often called a psychological movement in education. The figures of this school are Pestalozzi, Johann Fredrich Herbart, Friedrich Wilhelm Frobel in Germany, and Stanley Hall in the United States. The quintessence of educational concepts developed by this stream includes:

  • Actualize all the latent potential of children, form a harmonious moral character and personality, and increase the social level of humans.
  • This development is done in line with the levels of Child Development (Pidarta, 2007: 116-20) through observation and experimentation (Mudyahardjo, 2008: 114)
  • Education is the development of innate (nature) accompanied by a good upbringing (nurture).
  • Education development prioritizes the improvement of basic education and the development of universal education (Mudyaharjo, 2008: 114)

5.  The Age Of Nationalism

The era of nationalism emerged in the 19th century as an effort to form Patriots of the nation and defend the nation from the imperialists. The characters are La Chatolais (France), Fichte (Germany), and Jefferson (United States). The concept of education that this stream wants to carry is: maintaining, strengthening, and enhancing the position of the state. The negative consequence of this education was the emergence of chauvinism in Germany, that is, madness or excessive love for the homeland in some countries, such as in Germany, which eventually led to the outbreak of World War I (Pidarta, 2007: 120-21).

6.  The age of liberalism, positivism, and individualism.

This age was born in the 19th century. Liberalism argues that education is a tool to strengthen the position of ruler/government pioneered in economics by Adam Smith and who is much knowledgeable he is the one in power which then leads to individualism. While positivism believes in the truth that can be observed by the five senses so the belief in religion is weakening. The founder of positivism was August Comte. 

7.  The Age Of Socialism

Social trends in education emerged in the 20th century as a reaction to the impact of liberalism, positivism, and individualism. His characters are Paul Natorp and George Kerchensteiner in Germany and John Dewey in the United States. According to this school, society has a more important meaning than the individual. Like atoms, individuals are nothing if they are not tangible objects. Therefore, education should be devoted to social purposes (ibid.: 121-24).

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