Educational Philosophy

Educational Philosophy

A. Understanding Philosophy

The word philosophy or philosophy comes from the Greek: Philosophia which is basically a compound word consisting of Philos which means love, and Sophia which means wisdom. Thus, philosophy can be interpreted as a love of wisdom (Masykur Arif Rahman, 2013).

Sun Pribadi (in Syamsu Yusuf and Juntika Nurihsan, 2011) defines this philosophy as a human effort to obtain a view or conception of everything that exists, and what is the meaning of human life in this universe.

Studying philosophy is not only limited to thinking about something as a manifestation of the desire or desire to know something, but indeed philosophy has a function in human life, namely that (1) every human being must make decisions or actions, (2) the decisions taken are self-decisions, (3) by philosophizing can reduce misunderstandings and conflicts, and (4) to face the confusion of an ever-changing world.

Philosophy addresses something from all its profound aspects, so it is said that the truth of a philosophy is a comprehensive truth that is often contrasted with the truth of Science which is relative. Because the truth of science is only viewed in terms of what can be observed by humans. Like observing icebergs, we can only see those above sea level. Meanwhile, philosophy tries to dive to the bottom of the iceberg to feel everything that exists through critical thinking and reflection (Pidarta, 2014).

The characteristics of philosophy can be identified as six things with regard to characteristics of philosophy, namely the object studied philosophy (object of study), the process of philosophizing (the process of study), the purpose of philosophizing (the results of the study), the presentation and the nature of the truth. 

The object of study of philosophy is everything, including something that has been created by itself (God's creation) as well as everything as a result of human creation. However, of all these things only the fundamental ones are studied or questioned and thought about by philosophers. In short, the object of study of philosophy is comprehensive and fundamental.

The process of study or the process of philosophizing begins with amazement, dissatisfaction, desire to ask, and doubt a philosopher about something he experienced. Therefore in philosophizing philosophers do not think in opposition to an existing assumption, rather they test existing assumptions. 

In addition, philosophical thinking or philosophizing is contemplative, meaning thinking to reveal the nature of something that is thought, or speculative thinking is thinking beyond the existing facts to reveal what is behind the visible, or also called radical thinking, which is thinking to the root of something that is questioned to reveal the nature of what is questioned. 

As for in order to reveal the nature of something in question, philosophers think synoptically, that is, think with a pattern that summarizes the whole of what is being thought or questioned, this thinking pattern is the opposite of analytical thinking patterns. It should also be understood that in thinking, philosophers involve all their human experience, so it is subjective.

The purpose of philosophers thinking in such a way about what the question is none other than to obtain the truth. The result of philosophizing is a system of theories, systems of thought, or systems of concepts that are normative or prescriptive and individualistic-unique. The results of philosophizing are normative or prescriptive meaning that the system of philosophical ideas indicates what is aspired to or what should be. 

Whereas individualistic-unique means that the system of philosophical ideas put forward by a particular philosopher will be different from the system of philosophical ideas put forward by other philosophers. This may be due, among other things, to the subjective nature of his thought process, which involves the human experience of each philosopher. 

Therefore, the truth of a philosophy is subjective-parallelistic, that is, that a system of philosophical ideas is true for the philosopher in question or for its adherents; one system of philosophical ideas and another system of philosophical ideas can not knock each other about the truth. In other words, each school of philosophy has a truth that prevails on its own rails. The results of philosophizing are presented by philosophers in a systematic thematic way in the form of narrative (oral/written description) or prophetic (oral/written dialogue/question and answer).

In its outline there are four branches of philosophy, namely metaphysics, epistemology, logic, and ethics, with their respective material contents as follows:

Metaphysics is a philosophy that examines the nature of everything that exists in nature. Sub-branches of metaphysics include:

  • Ontology is a branch of philosophy (general metaphysics) that studies or discusses the nature of the existence of everything that exists comprehensively. Examples of what is discussed or questioned in Ontology include: is the existing nature (reality) material or ideal? Is it singular, dual, or plural? Does it stay or change? Etc. The answer to this question is certainly not one, but different.
  • Cosmology is a branch of philosophy (a special section of metaphysics) that studies or discusses the nature of nature including everything in it, except man.
  • Theology is a branch of philosophy (part of special metaphysics) that studies or deals with the existence of God. In theology, this problem of the existence of God is discussed rationally regardless of religious beliefs. For example, the recognition of the existence of God is not on the basis of faith but on rational arguments. 

Anthropology is a branch of philosophy (a special section of metaphysics) that studies or deals with the nature of man. Questions discussed in anthropology include: who is man, God's creation, or emerged from nature as a result of evolution? Is it the soul or the body? What is the relationship between body and soul? How is the relationship of man with his Lord, with nature, with each other, etc?

Epistemology is a philosophy that deals with knowledge and truth, with details of each as follows:

  1. There are five sources of knowledge:

  • Authority is contained in encyclopedias, good textbooks, formulas, and tables.
  • Common sense is in customs and traditions.
  • Intuition is related to feelings.
  • The mind deduces the results of the experience.
  • A controlled experience to gain scientifically.

  1. There are four theories of truth:

  • Coherent, something will be true when it is consistent with a common truth.
  • Correspondent, something will be true if it is true to the facts described.
  • Pragmatism, something is seen as correct when its consequences Benefit Life.
  • In skepticism, the truth is sought scientifically and there is no complete truth.
  • Logic is a philosophy that deals with the way humans think correctly. By understanding the philosophy of logic, it is expected that humans can think and express their filters appropriately and correctly.
  • Axiology is the branch of philosophy that studies or deals with the nature of values. Axiology consists of:

  1. Ethics is a branch of philosophy (part of Axiology) that studies or discusses the good and evil nature of human actions; and
  2. Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy (part of Axiology) that studies or discusses the nature of art (art) and beauty ( beauty).

School of philosophy as can be understood from the description above, that the characteristics of the philosophers who are contemplative and subjective thinking have resulted in a system of ideas that are individualistic-unique. Nevertheless, it is in the map of the development of the philosophical system of mind that philosophers find similarities and consistency of mind in the form of some schools of thought of certain philosophers. Thus, it is known the existence of various schools of philosophy such as idealism, realism, pragmatism, etc. (Tatang, 2012).

B. Philosophical Foundations Of Education In General

The philosophical foundation of education is a set of philosophies that serve as a starting point in education.

The philosophical foundation of education is actually a system of ideas about education and deduction or elaborated from a system of general philosophical ideas proposed by a particular philosophical school. There is an implicit relationship between the ideas in the branches of general philosophy and the ideas of Education.

Contains ideas or concepts that are normative or predictive. It is said to be normative or predictive, because the philosophical foundation of Education does not contain concepts about education as it is, but contains concepts of education that should or aspired to.

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