Character of Education Theory

 Character Education

A.      Understanding Character Education

Discussing the issue of education can not be separated from the understanding of education in general so that a clearer understanding of education is obtained. According To The National Education System Act No. 20 the year 2003 article 1 point 1, education is a conscious and planned effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have religious spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the necessary skills themselves, society, nation, and state.

National Education aims to develop the potential of students to become human beings who believe and fear God Almighty, noble character, healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent, and become democratic citizens and responsible (National Education Law No. 20 of 2003 article 3). Education that aims to produce human beings and strong character was once said by Martin Luther King, namely character intelligence is the true ultimate goal of Education.

Understanding, in particular, the character is a typical good value (knowing the value of goodness, willing to do good, real good life, and good impact on the environment) that are imprinted in the self and manifested in behavior (Mahmud, 2013:42).  Character coherently emanates from the results of thinking, Sports, Sports, and sports and the work of a person or group of people.

Character education according to Thomas Lickona (1991) is an education to form a person's personality through character education whose results are seen in one's real actions, namely good behavior, honesty, responsibility, respect for the rights of others, hard work, and so on.

In relation to education, character education can be interpreted as value education, character education, moral education, and character education, which aims to develop students ' ability to give good and bad decisions, maintain goodness, and realize and spread goodness in everyday life wholeheartedly.

B.      Character Education Function

Society views education as the inheritance of culture or cultural values, both skills, and expertise, from the older generation to the younger generation so that the community can maintain its survival or keep maintaining its personality. From the perspective of the individual, education means the development of individual potential that is still latent in order to be actualized concretely so that the results can be enjoyed by individuals and society.

As quoted by Akhmad in Mahmud (2013:104) states that the function of character education includes:

  • - Development of the basic potential of students to be careful, minded, and well behaved
  • - Strengthen and build the nation's multicultural behavior to become a dignified nation
  • - To filter out negative cultures and absorb cultures that are in accordance with the cultural values and character of the nation to improve the civilization of a competitive nation in the world.

The function of character education according to the Ministry of National Education is :

  • Development of basic potentials, in order to be ”good-natured, good-minded and well-behaved”.
  • Improvement of poor behavior and reinforcement of already good behavior
  • Filter culture that is less in accordance with the noble values of Pancasila

C.      Purpose Of Character Education

In principle, the goals of education should be in harmony with the goals on which education is based and based. Because the purpose of education must be universal and always actual in all times and ages. The concept of character education is basically trying to realize students or human character (noble character). 

Minister of National Education (2011: 6) suggested that the formation of character is one of the goals of National Education. In Article 1 of the 2003 National Education Law, it has also been mentioned that among the goals of National Education is to develop the potential of students to have intelligence and noble character.

The purpose of real character education if connected with the philosophy of the Republic of Indonesia is to develop the character of students to be able to realize the noble values of Pancasila. 

According to Dharma Kesuma, CEPI Triatna, and Johar Permana (Sri Narwanti (2011:17), the purpose of character education is as follows :

  • Facilitate the reinforcement and development of certain values so that they manifest in the child's behavior, both during the school process and after the school process (after graduating from school).
  • Correcting the behavior of students who do not correspond to the values that society develops.
  • Build harmonious connections with families and communities in acting out the responsibility of character education together.

Character education aims to improve the quality of implementation and educational outcomes in schools that lead to the achievement of the formation of character and noble character of students as a whole, integrated, and balanced according to graduate competency standards.  

Through character education, students are expected to be able to independently improve and use their knowledge, review and internalize and personalize the values of character and noble character so that everyday behavior is realized.

D.      Dimensions of Character Education

Every human being in his life must experience changes or developments, both changes that are real or that involve physical changes, as well as changes that are abstract or change related to psychological aspects. 

This change is influenced by various factors, either coming from within humans (internal) or coming from outside (external) factors that will determine whether the process of human change leads to things that are positive or otherwise affect the changes that are negative.

Character education has a mission to develop the basic characteristics that should be owned by students appreciation and responsibility are the two main moral values that must be taught by the school. Other moral values are honesty, justice, tolerance, wisdom, self-discipline, and mutual aid. 

The values that must be developed in character education in Indonesia are identified as coming from :

  • Religion, Indonesian society is a religious society. Therefore, the life of individuals, communities, and nations is always based on religious teachings and beliefs.
  • Pancasila, the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia is affirmed on the principles of national life and statehood called Pancasila.
  • Culture is a truth that no human being lives in a society that is not based on cultural values recognized by society.

Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 20 of 2003 on the national education system ( Sisdiknas law) formulates the functions and objectives of national education that should be used in developing educational efforts in Indonesia. 

The purpose of national education is a formulation of quality that must be owned by every Indonesian citizen and developed by various educational units at various levels and paths. The purpose of National Education contains various human values that must be owned by Indonesian citizens.

Different situations and conditions of society are proven to contribute to the nuances of their own or priorities contained in character education. This definition of character education further emphasizes the importance of the Seven Pillars of character as follows:

  • Sincerity, honesty
  • Love
  • Generosity
  • Courage
  • Freedom
  • Equation
  • Respect

This understanding of character is widely associated with the understanding of understanding, noble character, morals, and even multiple intelligences.  Different situations and conditions of society are proven to provide their own nuances or priorities contained in character education. 

The definition of character education will also differ with the number and type of pillars of character which is more emphasized. Related to multiple intelligences, we know that intelligence includes four pillars of intelligence that are interrelated, (1) intellectual intelligence, (2) spiritual Intelligence, (3) emotional intelligence, and (4) social Intelligence. 

Intellectual intelligence is often referred to as stand-alone intelligence which is more referred to in the sense of stand-alone intelligence which is more referred to in the sense of intelligence in general, with the international standard measure known as IQ. While other intelligence has not or does not have a mathematical measure as intellectual intelligence.

E.       Factors affecting the success of Character Education

In the review of Character Science revealed that all human actions and deeds have different patterns between one and the other, basically a result of the influence of the human self (instinct) and motivation that is supplied from outside himself such as milieu, education, and aspects of warmth. 

First is the instinct factor (instinct). Various patterns of reflection of human attitudes, actions, and deeds are motivated by the potential of the Will driven by one's instincts. Instinct is a set of traits that humans carry from birth. 

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