Application of Mixed Methods Research Model

Mixed Methods Research Model

Mixed methods involve combining or integrating qualitative and quantitative research and data in a research study.  Qualitative data tends to be open-ended without a predetermined response, whereas quantitative data usually includes closed responses such as those on questions or psychological instruments.  The field of mixed methods research is relatively new with major work in developing it dating from the mid to late 1980s.

In 1959, Campbell and Fisk used a variety of methods to study psychological traits even though their method was only quantitative measurement.  Their work encouraged others to start collecting various forms of data, such as observations and interviews (qualitative data) with traditional surveys (Sieber, 1973).

Early thinking about the value of multiple methods called mixed methods rests on the idea that all methods have biases and weaknesses, and that the collection of quantitative and qualitative data neutralizes the weaknesses of each form of data.

Triangulation of data sources is a way to find convergence between qualitative and quantitative methods (Jick, 1979).  

In the early 1990s, mixed methods shifted to the systematic convergence of quantitative and qualitative databases, and the idea of ​​integration in different types of research designs emerged.  

This type of design was discussed extensively in the main handbook covering the field in 2003 (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010).

The procedure for developing the developed mixed methods is as follows:

  • Ways to integrate quantitative and qualitative data, such as one database, can be used to check the accuracy (validity) of another database.
  • One database can help explain another database, and one database can explore different types of queries from other databases.
  • One database can produce better instruments if the instrument is not suitable for the sample or population.
  • One database can be built on top of another database, and one database can alternate with other databases back and forth during the study

Subsequently, the design was developed and notations were added to help the reader understand the design;  challenges to working with design emerge (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011).  Practical issues are being discussed extensively today in terms of examples of “good” mixed methods studies and evaluative criteria, the use of teams to model these investigations and the extension of mixed methods to other countries and disciplines (Creswell. 2014)

There are three main models in social research according to (Creswell. 2014) as follows:

  • Convergent parallel mixed methods is a form of mixed methods design in which the researcher combines or combines quantitative and qualitative data to provide a comprehensive analysis of the research problem.
  • Sequential mixed methods explanation is one in which the researcher first conducts quantitative research, analyzes the results, and then constructs the results to explain in more detail with qualitative research.  This is considered explanatory because the results of the initial quantitative data are explained further with qualitative data.

The exploratory sequential mixed method is the reverse order of the explanatory sequential design.  In the exploratory sequential approach, the researcher first begins with the qualitative research phase and explores the views of the participants.  The data is then analyzed, and the information is used to build a second quantitative phase.

These basic models can then be used in more advanced mixed methods strategies.  Transformative mixed methods is a design that uses a theoretical lens taken from justice or social power as an overarching perspective in a design containing both quantitative and qualitative data.


Creswell, J. W. (2014).  A concise introduction to mixed methods research.  SAGE publications.

Ishtiaq, M. (2019).  Book Review Creswell, JW (2014).  Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.  English Language Teaching, 12(5), 40.

Clark, V. L. P., & Creswell, J. W. (2014).  Understanding research: A consumer's guide.  Pearson Higher Ed.

Creswell, J. W. (2014).  The selection of a research approach.  Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach 3-24.

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