Analysis Of Classical Management Theory

Classical Management Theory

A theory will always be important and always appropriate to be studied if the theory continues to develop according to changing times so that the theory is always appropriate to be applied at any time. There are many theories developed in World Science today including theories about management. Many management experts write about management theory with a variety of views or perceptions of each which is certainly based on an in-depth study process. So it is not uncommon to find quite a lot of differences in the discussion of a management theory.

Regarding management theory in general, there are many developments of management theory written differently from various references, in a reference mentioned that there are three schools of management thought, namely:

  1. Classical schools are divided into scientific management and classical organizational theory. (there are other references that mention classical organizational theory is divided into bureaucratic theory and administrative theory).
  2. The school of human relations, is referred to as the neoclassical or post-classical school.
  3. Modern management flow.

There are also other references that outline the concept of management can be grouped into 4 groups, namely:

  1. Classical Management Concept
  2. Behavioristic Management Concepts
  3. Concept Of Management Systems Model
  4. Networking Management Concept

Furthermore, there are other references that mention that the basic concept of management itself has developed throughout history that cannot be separated from management experts.  In general, the development of management theory can be divided into 4, namely :

  1. Scientific management (1870 – 1930)
  2. Classical management (1900 – 1940)
  3. Human relations management (1930 – 1940)
  4. Modern management (1940-present)

Classical Management In Learning Learning

Examples Of Experiential Learning

            One way that we can explain what experiential learning means to us is with some examples of how we use experiential learning in our own work with managers and management students.

            Example 1: 'Entire Task Group'

            The entire group's tasks are designed to help managers engage with the emotional and political dynamics that build and often limit the organization. This exercise belongs to the 'group relationship' tradition of experiential learning (France and Vince 1999). This is best done with a group of between twelve and twenty managers, in a room where the seats can be arranged in a circle. 

The exercise lasts seventy-five minutes and then there is a short break before the thirty-minute plenary to question the event. At the beginning of the exercise, the tutor will say something like: 'this session is called the whole group task. It will finish in (gives the group a finish time).  As for the group to decide, and task management is with the group. Your tutor will only comment on the process.'The first thing that happens, as soon as the tutor finishes making this initial statement, is some form of reaction to not having a clear task.

            Example 2: undergraduate course in management and organization behavior

           This lecture was a response from a colleague who said that experiential learning is all very well with a small group of managers, but can not be used in lectures with 250 Bachelor of management. The 'lecture' lasted for fifty minutes. When students come to the lecture theatre they are each given one blank sheet of A4 paper. 

After they settled down, they were given ten minutes to create some thing beautiful'. The students interpreted this task in many ways. For after a few minutes, paper airplanes began to float from the theatrical part of the lecture. Several students sat with a piece of paper in their hands, it was not clear what they were supposed to do. From the front the lecturer could see students drawing, coloring with different pens, tearing shapes into paper, folding them, screwing them into balls, talking about other things, sending text messages, and making origami figures.

So to discuss classical management itself, it is necessary to discuss whether classical management is discussed as a concept or flow or organizational theory, because when discussing it as a flow, as stated above classical flow management is divided into scientific management and classical organizational theory, so it can be said that scientific management is part of classical management. Meanwhile, if discussed as a theory, it can be seen in the explanation above that scientific management is different or separate from classical management.

In addition there are differences in terms of discussion of whether classical management is seen as a stream or concept/ theory, there are also differences in terms of figures who became pioneers of scientific management. But behind all the differences that exist, there is still a common ground or principal classical management theory which in this case can be seen in the description of the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of classical management theory. However, the discussion of a theory will be right on target if the discussion is focused on a certain aspect or point of view.

The essence of classical management theory is more of a management theory that prioritizes the productivity of an organization or company by improving the quality of workers/ employees by being given specific work and being charged with the responsibility to complete it at a predetermined time accompanied by adequate education and training in order to improve work effectiveness and efforts to find the best alternative methods to further Of course, when someone focuses on achieving a certain goal, it can not be denied that there will be other aspects that are less concerned, as well as the classical management theory so that this theory was not spared from the shortcomings or limitations


Fatah, Nana. 2008. Foundation Of Management Education. Bandung: PT. Teenager Rosdakarya. 

Siswanto, H.B. 2007. Introduction To Management. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara. 

Sugiyono. 2014. Management guidance and counseling in schools. Semarang: Widya Karya. 

Syamsu Yusuf, LN and A. Juntika Nurihsan. 2010. Foundation of guidance and counseling.

Bandung: cooperation between PPs UPI and Pt Remaja Rosdakarya.

Suherman, Uman. Management guidance and counseling. Jakarta: Mandani Production.

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