The motivation, guidance of objectives, and performance behavior

Motivation, Guidance of Objectives, and Performance behavior 

although extended associations have been empirically led to intrinsic motivation, objectives control guidelines, and performance, there is currently a lack of theory and research linking them causally. First, we examine definitional and theoretical overlap in existing literature concerning intrinsic motivation and the orientation of a master's degree. Second, we examine how current research may not delete causal inferences between intrinsic and extrinsic behaviors, objectives orientation, and performance behavior. In the following section, we rely on these two points to offer an additional model in which intrinsic motivation leads to the orientation of success objectives, which in turn affects performance behavior.

Definition and theoretical overlap

The inconsistencies with which the temporal priority between intrinsic motivation and the orientation of the objectives are drawn can be due in part to an overlap of the way in which the two are defined. For Example, intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975; Harlow, 1958; White, 1959), MasterS Order Orientation (Ames et Archer, 1987, 1988; Dweck, 1986; Elliot and Church, 1997; Nicholls, 1984), and motivation success (Atkinson, 1957, 1964) are all fundamentally described as forms of motivation approach. 

Likewise, intrinsic motivation (Eccles and Wigfield, 2002) and the motivation for success (Atkinson, 1957) are considered stable lines or constructions. As we can see, there is probably an overlapping of constructions. Second, the explanatory links between intrinsic motivation and performance can be lacking due to competing theories. On the one hand, some researchers suggest that motivation precedes the orientation of the objectives. 

The results of Lee, Sheldon, and Turban (2003) using university students are consistent with a behavioral regulation model → Objectives obligation. On the other hand, studies in accordance with Elliot, Dweck, and Colleagues suggest the opposite so that the orientation of objectives → Regulation on behavior (Dweck, 1975, 1986, 1989; Dweck and Elliot, 1983; Dweck and Leggett, 1988). Thereby, the two competing theories were not subjected to an empirical examination using Data justifying causal inferences.

Insufficient empirical support for causal inferences currently, the majority of studies examining the relations between objectives orientations, motivation, and performance examine relations with relations that cannot support the causal hypotheses for which they are Destined. Transversal conceptions do not absolutely represent change, nor exclude alternative explanations of causality (Ployhart and Vandenberg, 2010). 

There is often a stronger basis for causal inferences when using experimental studies with appropriate controls (Cook, Campbell, and Peracchio, 1990). However, experimental studies with motivation and orientation of objectives can have a limited generalization beyond a particular study if they artificially induce the guidelines of objectives (for example, Cury, Elliot, Sarrazin, Da Fonseca, and Rofo, 2002), implement close interventions (for example, Cueva, 2007), or assess the constructions in the laboratory (for example, Lorenzet, 2001). 

Longitudinal studies can provide a stronger basis for causal inferences in a more naturalistic environment. Unfortunately, most of the longitudinal naturalists available are not really longitudinal, because they do not administer the same measures several times (for example, Kim, 1996). 

Although an available study has administered the same intrinsic motivation measures and objectives orientation several times (that is say Papaioannou, Bebetsos, Theodorakis, Christudoulidis, and Kouli, 2006), he did not explain If the motivation and orientation of the objectives were linked either empirically or theoretically.

Orientation Of Domain Objectives As A Mediator Between Intrinsic Motivation And Performance

In part, our goal is to replicate the previous findings that intrinsic motivation is positively associated with the domain objectives. However, we also propose the relationship between intrinsic motivation and subsequent performance must be mediated by the orientation of domain objectives for several reasons. First, although intrinsic motivation tends to associate positively with participation in performance behaviors, intrinsic motivation is not a sufficient causal condition for performance; It is reasonable to enjoy a task and not exercise any effort to improve it (for example, a child who makes music hitting pots and pans). 

On the other hand, intrinsic motivation becomes a sufficient causal condition for performance in the presence of domain objectives because domain objectives provide an intrinsically motivated individual purpose (Elliot and Church, 1997) and the approach (Maehr and Nicholls, 1980 ). Second, intrinsic motivation essentially describes the interest and enjoyment of an activity for its own good (Deci and Ryan, 1985). According to this definition, an individual could imagine enjoying the performance of a certain activity and persist in it for prolonged periods of time, but like a child hitting pots and pans to create music). 

For this reason, the domain objectives should mediate the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance because they focus on the efforts of one on activities that are competence (instead of simply satisfaction) relevant (MAEHR and Nicholls, 1980; Rawsthorne and Elliot, 1999 ). 

Finally, we argue that researchers should consider the possibility that causality is not unidirectional because domain objectives can positively influence the subsequent levels of intrinsic motivation, since it is believed that domain objectives encourage perceptions of challenge, encourage The participation in the task, and generates excitement, all of which supports intrinsic motivation (Elliot and Harackiewicz, 1994, 1996). 

For example, a girl who finds that music is pleasant can look for opportunities to practice and improve her ability. In turn, this would increase the intrinsic enjoyment of music and performance. In line with a similar investigation (for example, Malmberg, 2006, 2008), we propose that the impulse to pursue tasks intrinsically satisfactorily makes people adopt orientations of domain objectives, which leads to more subsequent increases in intrinsic motivation and Performance


Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation, performance, and the mediating role of mastery goal orientation: A test of self-determination theory. The Journal of psychology148(3), 267-286.

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