Postnatal depressive symptoms and their children’s academic

symptoms and their children’s 

Academic achievements are associated with a series of positive results in adulthood including better health and health behavior, greater social support, higher income, greater control over a person's life, and a decrease in opportunities to start the use of drugs and naughty behavior (Bachman et al., 2008; Mirowsky & Ross, 2003; Ross & Wu, 1995). 

Several factors have been found to predict differences in the achievement of education including individual characteristics, families, and sociodemography (eg, Ou & Reynolds, 2008; Pearson et al., 2016; Steinmayr & Spinath, 2008). Studies support the influence of parental depression on the academic achievements of children (Augustine & Crosnoe, 2010). 

Shen et al. (2016) Checking the relationship between the diagnosis of mother and father depression and the academic performance of their children in 16 years using a sample of 1,124,162 Swedish children and found that depression in mothers and fathers at different times independently predicts more academic achievements low in their children in 16 years. 

Is the key to understanding the mechanism that is possible where the depression of parents causes the low academic achievement of their children to inform the teachers and policymakers so that effective prevention and support programs can be developed for students and their parents. In a longitudinal study of 50 mothers with postnatal depression and 39 controls, Murray et al. (2010) found that the relationship between post-maternal depression and the low value of their son in 16 years was explained by the effect of postpartum depression on the mother on the cognitive abilities of previous children and disruption of maternal interaction. 

Pearson et al. (2016) used data from the Longitudinal Avon study from parents and children (alspac; n = 5,801) to check the relationship between the symptoms of mother and father depression when their children are 8 weeks old, 8 months, 1.5, and 2, 5 years, and the school value of their children in 16 years. They found that teenage children from mothers with persistent postnatal depression symptoms are less likely to get the level of 'graduating' than teenagers with low levels of depression symptoms. 

There is evidence that the executive function measured in children at the age of 8 years can mediate some of the relationships between the symptoms of maternal depression and the academic achievement of their children.

In addition to lower academic achievements, children from parents with depression have a risk of increasing emotions and behavior (Goodman et al., 2011; Gutierrez-Galve et al., 2018; Netis et al., 2018; Psychogiou et al., 2017; Ramchandani, Stein, Evans, & O'Connor, 2005). Studies that test the cascading model show that mental health and academic achievements are interrelated and tend to influence each other from time to time (Masten et al., 2005).

Using samples of boys from families low-economic-economic status, Moilan, Shaw, and Maxwell (2010) found that boys with increased behavioral problems at the age of 6 and 8 years had lower academic competence 2 years later. This finding also revealed that poor academic competencies are predicted in turn behavioral problems at the ages of 11 and 12 and emotional symptoms at the age of 11.

In this study, we aim to examine the potential mechanisms through which the symptoms of mother and father depression can have an effect on the academic achievement of their children. The possible role of the relationship between the mother and father-father in explaining the effects of parental depression on the academic achievement of children is still less investigated. 

The existing literature shows that the relationship between parents-children influences academic achievements in children through several routes including the willingness of children to internalize parental values ​​about academic results (Grusec & Goodnow, 1994; Kopystynska, Spinrad, Seay, & Eisenberg, 2016), and better problems Solving and Emotion Regulation skills (Estrada, Arsenio, Hess, & Holloway, 1987; Gregory & Rimm-Kaufman, 2008). Another route might be through the mental health of children. It is determined that parent depression predicts a decline in parents' relations (Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000; Wilson & Durbin, 2010).

 A study that uses cohort millennium data found a significant relationship between the symptoms of a father's depression and a conflicting father-son in the early years (Nath, Russell, Ford, Kuyken, & Psychogiou, 2015). In turn, disorders in parents' relationships have been found to predict the emotional, behavior, and cognitive problems of children (Ahun & Cot ^ E, 2018; Elgar, Mills, McGrath, Waschbusch, & Brownridge, 2007; Malmberg & Flour, 2011; Nath, Russell, Kuyken, Psychogiou, & Ford, 2016).

Building this finding, we aim to check whether postnatal depression symptoms have an indirect effect on children's mental health problems on academic results in 16 years through negative parental relationships. The performance of children at the beginning of formal school may be another path through which the depression of parents can affect the long-term academic achievement of children. During this developmental transition, children experience significant changes in their daily lives; For example, children begin to build motivational, social, and learning skills and must meet the expectations of parents and teachers regarding academic achievements (Masten et al., 2005; Stipek, 2001; Stipek & Miles, 2008). 

Based on the literature that connects the mental health of children and academic achievements (eg., Masten et al., 2005; Moilan et al., 2010), it can be said that children from parents with depression can do something bad academically in the first grade, And as a result, they experience mental health difficulties, which in turn predicts academic performance from time to time.

 In other words, it makes sense that the symptoms of post-natal depression will have an indirect effect on children's mental health problems in academic results in 16 years through previous academic achievements. This study aims to test the hypothesis. Using data from the AlSpac study, Pearson et al. (2016) show that the symptoms of maternal depression have a bad effect on the academic achievement of their children at the age of 16 through the executive function of children. 

We expand the findings by Pearson et al. (2016) and use Alspac data sets to check whether the mental health problems of children measured by their behavior and emotional difficulties have an indirect effect on academic achievements through negative parents' relationships and previous academic achievements. We predict that the symptoms of mother and father depression predict the academic achievement of their children at the age of 16 regardless of parental education, the sex of children, cognitive abilities, and previous academic achievements.

Reference

Psychogiou, L., Russell, G., & Owens, M. (2020). Parents’ postnatal depressive symptoms and their children's academic attainment at 16 years: pathways of risk transmission. British Journal of Psychology111(1), 1-16.

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