Social Cognitive Theory

Motivation and human actions are largely regulated by the provident. The main factor to influences behavior is perceived self-efficacy, that is to say, that belief on the part of their capacities to carry out a specific action required to achieve the desired result. Self-effectiveness is prospective and operational in nature (for example, "I am sure that I can do exercise regularly, even if my exercise partner returns to a sedentary lifestyle"). 

Thus, perceived self-efficacy can be characterized as being based on skills, perspective, and linked to action (Bandura). Self-effectiveness is generally understood as being specific to the task or specific to the field. However, some researchers have also conceptualized a generalized feeling of self-efficacy which refers to a large feeling of stable personal competence to effectively treat a variety of stressful situations (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995; Sherrer et al., 1982). General self-efficacy (GSE) reflects a generalization in various operating areas in which people judge how effective they are. 

For the majority of applications, the perceived self-efficacy must be conceptualized in a specific way to the situation (Bandura, 1997). GSE, however, can explain a wider range of human behavior and adaptation results when the context is less specific. It may be useful to focus on several behaviors simultaneously (Luszczynska, Gibbons, Piko, and Tekozel, 2004) or when studying the well-being or behavior of patients who must adjust their lives to several requests due to the disease (Bonetti et al., 2001). 

In this study, we explored the relationships between GSE and a variety of other psychological constructions. We describe why and how certain variables should be linked to the GSE. According to SCT, people are considered self-organized, self-conflicting, and self-eating in that they carry judgments on themselves on the basis of their own activity. In addition, self-efficacy beliefs influence other cognitions, assignments, and behaviors and can also help meet stressful circumstances (Bandura, 1997). 

GSE is a universal construction, which means that it characterizes a fundamental belief inherent in all individuals. An intercultural common point of beliefs on efficiency to produce effects by personal action could be expected (Bandura, 2002). Consequently, it could be assumed that associations between self-efficacy and related constructions would be similar in all crops and samples.

Relations between general self-efficacy and social-cognitive constructions

The SCT implies that self-efficacy is the crucial and proximal predictor of behavior. Its influence on behavior is also indirect. Self-effectiveness affects the objectives and expectations of results which are also behavioral predictors (Bandura, 1997, 2002). Auto-effectiveness beliefs indirectly affect behavior through their impact on the intentions of the objective. The structure "I intend to" or "I aim at" reflects proximal objectives (or intentions). Self-efficiency, among other factors, influences that challenge people to decide to meet and to what height they set their goals. People with high self-efficacy in a specific field select more difficult and ambitious objectives. 

A high self-efficacy improves not only the establishment of objectives but also leads to more persistence to pursue the objective. Consequently, self-efficient individuals have stronger intentions. According to Gollwitzer (1999), the intentions of implementation (or action plans) refer to the translation of objectives or intentions into specific actions (how should I behave?) And in the situational circumstances of performance (Where and when should I do the action?). Self-effective individuals focus on their future and develop possible success scenarios for their actions. Therefore, they should be more determined to plan.

Self-efficacy and its relationship with well-being, health behavior, and overcome

Self-efficacy has a regulatory function in different health domains, such as compliance with medical recommendations (eg, adoption of a physically active lifestyle), positive and negative influences, dealing with pain, and overcoming stress. According to SCT, the adoption of behavior promoting health depends on the belief to be able to do certain behaviors precisely (Bandura, 1997). Individuals with stronger self-efficacy are more likely to be involved in healthy behavior, maintain it, and recover after setbacks. 

Optimistic self-confidence about competence itself creates positive affective conditions instead of negative, such as anxiety. Individuals who are effective may experience a low level of negative emotions in threatening situations and, as a result, may feel able to master the situation (Bandura, 1997). Individuals who are burdened with self -doubts suffer from difficulties and negative emotions, such as anxiety and depression (Bandura). In addition, negative emotions can produce cognitive confusion, which leads to a worse solution to the problem. 

The patient's belief in their ability to overcome and tolerate pain is the predictor of pain behavior, pain intensity, and pain tolerance (Bandura, 1997). Those who are very effective are involved more easily in different activities regardless of pain, thereby reducing the intensity of pain and disability. People with high self-efficacy might overcome more active with pain, which leads to reducing the intensity of the pain received. 

Self-efficacy is felt to represent the belief that a person can use the skills needed to fight the temptation, overcome stress, and mobilize the resources needed to meet the situational demands (Bandura, 1997). After the action has been taken, people with high self-efficacy invest more effort and last longer than those who are low self-efficacy. Therefore, people might hope that the first will choose an active coping strategy and useless passive strategies or focus on negative emotions than the last. People with strong self-efficacy recognize that they can overcome obstacles and focus on opportunities. Self-efficacy leads to effective problem solving (bandura).



Luszczynska, A., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). The general self-efficacy scale: multicultural validation studies. The Journal of psychology139(5), 439-457.

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