The cultural differences: cultural differences Value, cultural Differences in communication and Stereotype in Cultural,

The cultural differences American white people often have difficulty considering themselves members of cultural groups. The depth of their own identification with "white" or the traditions and the Protestant values ​​of Anglo-Saxon White (wasp) surprised many of the groups. 

"Identification with wasp culture is usually accepted by the wasp itself as a fact and without real awareness of the subtle influence on them or about how culture can be seen by Montavon" (Axelson, 1993, pp. 368-369). 

The informant of the informal class conducted by Axelson asked the students, "Who are you?" WASP students answered, "America," "People," "Adult," "Male/Female," "Job Title," or other general answers. Non-white students or white minority students answered with more ethnic-related answers such as "black," "Asia," or "Italy-American." Or, when white students are asked what they are not, they tend to answer with ethnically related answers.

Value in Cultural

The value of an important aspect of self-awareness for counselors is the recognition that they cannot enter the counseling value-free or value-neutral process. If the counselor enters with one of these two assumptions, they risk forcing clients to make decisions or behave in a way that is consistent with their own values ​​(counselors) rather than the clients'. They are also at risk of making value assessments about clients and see clients as of right or wrong, moral or immoral, not different. 

Counselor values ​​also affect the purpose of counseling. Counselors who say they have no purpose that accidentally imposes their goals (unknown) on the client. Because the counselor indeed assumes several levels of authority in the counselor-client relationship, because counseling is not free of value, and because the values ​​transmitted are the values ​​learned by the counselor in their background and training, the client may want to assume the counselor's values ​​or at least associate more Many trusts in them than they do in unreasonable arrangements.

Stereotype in Cultural

Stereotypes, personal theory of personality applied to others, consisting of beliefs and perceptions collected about individual classes, groups, or objects (Axelson, 1993). Stereotypes are different from prejudices, which are defined by Axelson (1993) as "assessments or opinions formed previously without sufficient basis or knowledge" (p. 155). When based on inaccurate information, stereotypes often resemble prejudice. Stereotypes, such as prejudice, can be positive or negative. 

In a negative sense, they hinder the counseling process by giving obstacles to seeing clients as individuals and block the creativity of counselors by building a foundation for counseling that may or may be inaccurate. 

Conversely, stereotypes can provide useful hypotheses in understanding individual clients. Counselors who realize the stereotypes they hold can then make the stereotype work for them. This requires finding the information needed to make stereotypes more accurate. 

Cultural aware counselors will test their stereotypes by realizing it, open to new experiences, receiving new ideas, able to see old facts in a new way, and are willing to change the old stereotypes if the hypothesis does not apply (Axelson, 1993)

Differences in communication

Learning other languages ​​gives perfect opportunities to learn about their own language. Likewise, the lack of understanding of the language itself greatly hampered the learning process of the second language. 

These same principles apply to studying other cultures: without their own cultural knowledge, understanding others becomes more difficult. Communication, including language, plays a major role in the counseling process. Communication barriers complicate and often prevent counseling in cross-cultural or multicultural situations. Language barriers alone will be enough to hamper the counseling process. My wife and I Had Many Humroning Experiences in Korea Because of Language Misunderstand


Mwombela, B. (2019). Multicultural Competency of Pre-Service School Counseling Students: Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Multicultural Counseling Competency Training Survey-Revised.

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