A. The term guidance and counseling

Guidance and counseling translation from English guidance and counseling. The word "guidance" comes from the verb to guide which means to lead, show, or guide to a good path. So the word "guidance" can mean giving direction, or giving instructions to someone while "counseling" comes from the verb to counsel which means to advise or recommend to someone face to face.

Regarding the use of the term Guidance and Counseling, there are those who continue to use foreign language terms so that it is often abbreviated as “GC”; guidance and counseling, or in other words "guidance and counseling". Moh. Surya (1975) defines guidance and counseling in general as a help or guidance. Sertzer and Stone (1966: 3) suggest that guidance comes from the word guide which means to direct, pilot, manager, or steer, meaning: to show, direct, determine, regulate, or steer (Victoria Neufeldt, Ed, 1988: 599).

B. Definition of Guidance and Counseling

Guidance is assistance given to individuals from an expert. However, it is not that simple to understand the meaning of guidance. The definition of formal guidance has been expressed by people since at least the beginning of the 20th century, initiated by Franks Parson in 1908. Since then, there has been a formulation of guidance in accordance with the development of guidance services as a distinctive job occupied by enthusiasts and experts. Definitions from experts provide a complementary understanding of each other.

Djumhur and Moh. Surya (1975) suggests that guidance is a process of providing continuous and systematic assistance to individuals in solving the problems they face, in order to achieve the ability to understand themselves (self understanding), the ability to accept themselves, the ability to direct themselves (self direction), and self-direction. realization (self-realization) in accordance with the potential or ability in achieving adjustment to the environment, both family, school and school

Glenn E. Smith (1955) suggests: counseling is a process in which the counselor assists the counselee in making interpretations of the facts relating to the selection, plan or adjustment needed. James F. Adams (1965) suggests: counseling is a reciprocal relationship between two individuals in which one (counselor) helps another (counselee), so that he can better understand himself in relation to the life problems he faces at the time. that and in the future. 

Some Guidance and Counseling experts include: Crow and Crow and in the book "Jear Book of Education" (1955) define guidance as a process of helping individuals to identify and find solutions to problems faced by utilizing all the abilities possessed by the person concerned. . 

In line with that, Winkel (2005: 34) defines counseling as a series of the most basic activities of guidance in an effort to help the counselee/client face to face with the aim that the client can take responsibility for himself on special problems or problems.

Based on the definition of counseling, it can be understood that counseling is an effort to help the counselee/client face to face with the aim that the client can take responsibility for himself on various problems or special problems. 

From the several definitions of guidance and counseling put forward by the experts above, it can be stated that guidance and counseling is a process of providing assistance to individuals on an ongoing and systematic basis, which is carried out by an expert who has received special training for that purpose, with the aim that individuals can understand himself, his environment, and be able to direct himself and adapt to the environment to develop his potential optimally for his welfare and the welfare of society.

C. The purpose of guidance and counseling

The purpose of guidance and counseling is to provide assistance so that students can understand themselves, both as creatures of God and as social beings. Prayitno (1997) suggests that the ability to understand oneself is important for anyone, including elementary school students, so that they can face life better. This is intended so that they understand their personal strengths and strengths to meet their future. In general, the strength of understanding individual students is oriented to the strength of self-understanding by recognizing the environment objectively, both the social and economic environment, the cultural environment which is full of values ​​and norms as well as the physical environment and accepting various environmental conditions in a positive and dynamic way. The introduction of the environment in question includes the home environment, school and community environment

The purpose of guidance and counseling is to assist students in achieving:

  1. Happiness of personal life as a creature of God
  2. Productive and effective life in society
  3. Living together with other students.
  4. Harmony between their ideals and their abilities.

To achieve these goals, they should have the opportunity to:

  1. Recognize and implement the purpose of his life and formulate a life plan based on that goal,
  2. by doing a careful planning and carrying out with full responsibility.
  3. Recognize and understand needs realistically, through building cooperation with peers, with clear and planned activities.
  4. Recognizing and overcoming one's own difficulties, by learning to strengthen one's personality and constantly learning from the experiences of oneself and others.
  5. Know and develop their abilities optimally, by always communicating and seeking information on various knowledge and skills for now and in the future.
  6. Using his abilities for personal interests and for the public interest in living together, by prioritizing cooperation and honesty and a sense of responsibility
  7. Adjusting to the conditions and demands in the environment, by following the prevailing norms, respecting and respecting and loving the people around him.
  8. Develop everything they have appropriately and creatively, especially in accordance with their developmental tasks to the optimal limit.


Dee Porter, Bobbi & Hernacki, Mike, Quantum Learning, Terjemahan Aliwiyah Abdurahman (Bandung; Kafia, 2001) 

Depdiknas, Bimbingan dan Konseling di Sekolah. Direktorat Tenaga Kepenndidikan Dirjen Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan (Jakarta; 2008) ------------

-----, Pelayanan Bimbingan dan Konseling (Jakarta; Puslur Balitbang, 2003) 
Desmita, Psikologi Perkembangan Peserta Didik (Bandung, PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, 2012), cetakan keempat. 
Ellis, T.I., The Missouri Comprehensive School Guidance Programme at Work. Texas Association for Counceling and Development Journal, 15, 25-27.

Lawson, Michael J., The Case for Instruction in The Use of General Problem Solving Strategis in Mathematics Teaching: A Comment on Owen and Sweller, Journal of Reseach in Mathematics Education (1990), 21, 5, 403- 410. 

Morril, Oetting, dan Hurs dalam Ivey, Lyn Simek, Counceling and Psikotherapy: Skills, Theories and Practice, Prentice Hall, 1980.

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