Personality traits in personality psychology,

Personality traits in personality psychology

The line concept has been used to designate coherent behavior models, in particular, expressive or stylistic behavior (see Winter et al., 1998). Theorization and research on traits have been most focused on questions concerning the number, nature, and organization of "basic" traits, using three different strategies. In the approximate order of popularity, they are (1) a factorial analysis and related mathematical techniques, generally used in nomothetic research to identify the dimensions of the traits applicable to people in general; (2) rational or a priori theorization, often involving the construction of typologies applicable to subgroups of people; and (3) the idiographical approach, which essentially rejects the attempt to identify the "basic" features, rather focusing on the unique features or model of an individual.

Each individual is. . . represented as a point in the multidimensional common factor space. The position [of the individual] is unique for any other person has exactly the same combination of the quantities of the different factors. —Guilford (1936, p. 675)

Factors. . . only represent average trends. The question of whether a factor is really an organic arrangement in an individual life has not been demonstrated. All that can be said with certainty is that a factor is an empirically derived component of the average personality and that the average personality is a complete abstraction. —Allport (1937, p. 244)

Recent historical accounts of the "Big Five" (see John et al., Chapter 4, this volume) Note the pioneering efforts of Cattell (1943) to reduce the Allport and Odbert (1936) list by 4,500 traits to a managed set of clusters or factors. However, the search for personality factors began much earlier, with the Webb study (1915) using a precursor of factor analysis to find a general factor relating to character. 

In the mid-1930s, psychologists showed a living interest in post-analytics of personality (Odbert, 1936). Exchanges between criticisms (for example, Allport and Odbert, 1936) and supporters (for example, Guilford, 1936) of this approach provided for contemporary debates concerning the number of factors sufficient to describe the personality and the applicability of group factors to individual personalities.

Alternative traits analyze

Rationally and theoretically constructions

Unlike the factor-analytical approach to the identification of essential features, some personality researchers have studied features or characteristics in the form of a derivative of personality theories or folk concepts. Often these researchers develop personality stocks that reflect their conceptualization of important personality units. 

Jackson (1974) developed the PRF to measure the characteristics based on the needs of Murray's theory, although these seem to work essentially as features (the factor analyzes of this measure reveal six factors; see Jackson and Tremblay, 2002 ). Gough (1957) used contrasting groups to build IPC scales for Lay or "Folk" concepts such as "realization", "sociability" or "dominance". Later (Gough, 1987), he used clustering techniques to build three "vectors" that looked like three factors from Eysenck.

Typologies

Other personality psychologists have proposed certain syndromes or types, or bundles organized in a coherent way of type characteristics that define interesting patterns. The Myers - Briggs type indicator (Myers, 1962), until recently one of the most used personality tests, was based on the typological combination of Jung (1923/1971) of "attitudes" (Extraversion - Introversion ) and "functions" (thought, feeling, detection and intuition). The typology of Jung and the gull vectors are presumed to cover all people. Other types and typologies are used more limited, to formalizing observations on interesting cases or summarizing complex data models.

The idiographical approach

Despite the popularity and prestige of factor analysis, the idiographical approach, which rejects the search for underlying "basic" traits and is rather based on the open lexicon for all the adjectives of lines that correspond to a person, In particular, survived (West, 1983; Winter, 1996, ch. 11).

Researchers who adopt this approach (for example, Allport, 1965) can seek individualized features or combinations of the most relevant features for a particular person, identify the central themes of an individual life, describe the structuring or the organization of Traits of an individual or use such models to make predictions on the behavior of an individual. 

Recent research on the evaluations of individuals on themselves and others (for example, Cervone, 2005; Grice et al., 2006) suggests that the five large people may not enter the full range of idiographical lines.

Motivation concepts in personality

The construction of the personality of the "motif" is based on the fundamental postulate that most behaviors are oriented towards an objective and show an intelligent variation in the improvement of the objective and the response to incentives, circumstances, opportunities, obstacles, and other current objectives. Thus, the patterns contrast with the lines; As Murray (1938, pp. 56–58) underlined, a given reason can be associated with an indefinitely large number of fairly different actions; Likewise, the same action can serve as multiple and varied objectives (see also Little, 1999; Pervin, 1989). In one form or another, the distinction between.

Books

John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of personality: Theory and research. Guilford Press.

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