Guidance and Counseling Principles and Stages in Schools

Guidance and Counseling Principles and Stages 

A. Guidance and Counseling Principles

The principle comes from the word "principal" which means the beginning in a certain way that gives birth to other things, the existence of which depends on the beginner. This principle is the result of a combination of theoretical studies and directed field theory which is used as a guide in the implementation of something intended. (Halaen, 2002: 63)

The principles of guidance and counseling describe the basic points of thought that are used as guidelines for implementing programs or rules that must be followed in the implementation of guidance service programs and can also be used as a set of practical foundations or rules of the game that must be followed in the implementation of guidance and counseling service programs in schools.

Prayitno (1997) said, "Principles are the results of theoretical studies and field studies that are used as guidelines for implementing something intended." From this opinion, it can be stated that the principles of guidance and counseling are the integration of theoretical and practical results that are formulated and made into guidelines, as well as the basis for service delivery.

B. Stages of Guidance and Counseling in Elementary School 

Counseling as a helping profession as expressed by Robert L. Gibson and Marrianne H. Mitchell (2011), is a concept that underlies the role and function of counselors in today's society. This profession must be owned by special personnel legally and formally, in this case, it needs to be proven by a license or certificate to perform services as a professional provider.

In starting a discussion about the helping profession, it is appropriate to start from the deepest foundation of its existence: the human client. These clients have very different characteristics that provide the basis for the counseling profession and the institutions that contribute knowledge and specialized professions. In detail the stages include:

1. Identify the problem

Identifying this problem is an important step that should not be left out for a guidance and counseling teacher who wants to be successful in providing assistance to his students. At this step, the thing that must be considered by a teacher or counselor is to recognize the early symptoms of a problem that is being faced by students. These early symptoms can usually be seen from different or deviant behavior and habits previously carried out by students.

2. Diagnose

After the problem can be identified, the diagnosis step is to determine the problem based on a background analysis that causes problems in students. The most important thing from this stage of diagnosis is the activity of collecting data on various things that are behind or causing the symptoms that occur.

3. Establishing the Prognosis

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary, the prognosis is a prediction about events that will occur, especially those related to illness or healing after surgery. In the context of guidance and counseling, the prognosis is planning actions to provide assistance to students after the stages of diagnosis of the problems that occur.

4. Giving Assistance

An important step in guidance and counseling services to students after determining the prognosis is realizing alternative forms of assistance based on the problem and background that causes it. Of course, this step of providing assistance is carried out with various approaches and techniques of providing assistance so that the actions taken by the guidance and counseling teacher are effective in achieving success.

5. Evaluation and Follow-up

Guidance and counseling services to students in good schools must be evaluated. Without an evaluation, it will be difficult for guidance and counseling services to achieve success. This evaluation was carried out in several meetings. Evaluation can be carried out during the guidance and counseling process until the end of the provision of assistance. Meanwhile, the material for evaluation is primary data that appears or is collected during meetings with students and secondary data that continues to be collected during the process of providing guidance and counseling.


Musnamar, Tohari, Dasar-dasar Konseptual Bimbingan dan Konseling Islami (Jakarta: UII Press, 1992), hlm. 5. 

Nurihsan, Ahmad Juntika, Strategi Layanan Bimbingan dan Konseling (Bandung; PT. Refika Aditama, 2012), cet. Ke-4. 

Prayitno dan Team, Pelayanan Bimbingan dan Konseling di Sekolah Dasar (Jakarta; PT. Ikrar Mandiriabadi, 1997). 

Purwanto, Ngalim, Psikologi Pendidikan (Bandung, PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, 2013) 

Restu Setyoningtyas, Heru Mugiarso & Eko Nusantoro, “Pengaruh Guru BK Tentang Kompetensi Konselor di Sekolah Swasta Kota Semarang”. Indoneisan Journal of Gudance and Counseling (2014), 2, hlmn. 38. 

Robert L. Gibson & Marianne H. Mitchell, Bimbingan dan Konseling (Yogyakarta; Pustaka Pelajar, 2011), edisi ke- 7.

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