Concepts of patterns in the Psychoanalytic Tradition Nature and Organization of Freud patterns

Psychoanalytic Concepts Freud 

Freud's patterns have placed motivation at the center of the personality. He argued that all behavior was motivated, and he gathered human motifs into two major classes: instincts of life (including self-service and libidinal or sexual motifs) and aggressive patterns or " Instinct of death ”(S. Freud, 1916-1917/1961 –1963, 1920/1955, 1933/1964). Many post-FRANC-Francs theorists have reformulated the theory of Dame Motivation of Freud. 

For example, the concepts of Bakan (1966) of "the agency" and "communion" stimulated a large part of empirical research (Helgeson, 1994; Wiggins and Trobst, 1999) and Winter (1996, ch. 5) have linked the libidinal and aggressive motif of Freud Groups to the patterns of affiliation and power measured by TAT. 

Selectively drawing on psychoanalytic theory and its neo-Franc-Faudiennes variants in an intensive study of a group of normal adult males, Murray (1938) has built an empirically 201 "needs" catalog or patterns that have been largely Accepted by subsequent personality psychologists, as in 201 “a general list measured by questionnaires such as the PRF, or as a base of elaborate research programs measuring particular patterns (see C. P. Smith, 1992).

Related concepts derived from the theory of psychoanalytic motivation Freud

Freud's theory believed that many human motifs (represented as the mental system) are faced with external reality, parental requests and social customs (represented by the Superego); This conflict is mediated by the ego. Unacceptable reasons, which would arouse anxiety, are transformed and/or made unconscious by the defense mechanisms in order to make them "safe", thus reducing anxiety. Anna Freud (1937/1946) has developed the nature and functioning of defense mechanisms in more detail.

Modern motivation concepts

As a reaction against what he considered as excessive psychoanalytic (and behavioral) research of the motivating origins of the childhood of adult behavior, Allport introduced the notion of "functional autonomy" of the motifs (1937), by Which he meant that the reasons really influence really really influencing really influence the influence really really influence the influence here and now, adult behavior is not (or no longer) derivatives of "primitive" or "primary" disks such as that libido or childhood experiences. More formally, functional autonomy presumes an "acquired motivation system in which the tensions involved are not of the same genre as the history tensions from which the acquired system has developed" (Allport, 1961, p. 229).

Measure the patterns thanks to the thematic appearance

Among the numerous new assessment procedures introduced in Murray's explorations (1938) in the personality, the TAT (Morgan and Murray, 1935) is undoubtedly the most famous and the most used. Although psychologists have developed many ways to interpret and mark the state (see Gieser and Stein, 1999), empirically derivative motivation measures being developed by McClelland are remarkable (see C. P. Smith, 1992; Winter, 1998 ), because they were based on the changes in the themes Appreciation is in fact produced by the experimental excitement of the reasons.

Application to related fields

Using themed asking measures, MC-Clelland has expanded the application of personality psychology to other social sciences. The motivation of realization, for example, is a major personality momentum for entrepreneurship and economic growth (McClelland, 1961; Spangler, 1992), while the motivation of power is linked to the charisma and the success of the management (House, Spangler, and Woycke, 1991) and raised combined with a low motivation of affiliation predict the aggression and the war (Winter, 1993).

Psychometric problems

The early popularity of the measures of state-based motivation has decreased in reaction to criticism of low internal coherence and temporal reliability, as well as the constant lack of correlation between TAT measures and the measures of the questionnaire of the "same" constructions presumed. Because of the reasons for wax and decline, and because a given reason can conduct a variety of fairly different actions,


John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of personality: Theory and research. Guilford Press.

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