The Relation of Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa to Body Image

Papalia and Ods in Khamim (2017) say that adolescence is a developmental transition period between childhood and adulthood which generally begins at the age of 12 or 13 years and ends in the late teens or early twenties. With increasing age, there will be changes in the teenager, both physically and psychologically.

According to Erikson's view, a teenager is at the stage of a crisis of identity, this encourages adolescents to seek identity (self-identity), how to realize their desire to become a "perfect" individual, intellectually, personally, and emotionally. in his physical appearance. This relates to young women who have their own body image. Having a slim and tall body is one of the desires of every teenage girl, on the other hand, it can increase her confidence and can even attract the attention of the opposite sex.

Many of these young girls have done this in order to achieve a body image that is appropriate or close to the word "perfect". One of them is to withstand hunger or reduce the portion of food in a day. If they succeed in doing this, then there is a certain satisfaction and proud achievement for the individual to be able to do this. However, if this is done continuously, it will increase the risk of developing Anorexia Nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa is a syndrome in which a person intentionally starves himself to become thin, and experiences drastic weight loss (Davison, 2010). Anorexia nervosa is also a syndrome where a person maintains low body weight and usually, they are afraid of being overweight and tend to maintain their weight to stay thin. In patients with anorexia nervosa, body weight is maintained at least 15% below normal body weight and in adults with a BMI below 17.5 kg/m2 (National Collaboration Center for Mental Health, 2004). Meanwhile, Berk (2005) in his book mentions anorexia nervosa is a tragic eating disorder in which young people deliberately starve themselves for fear of becoming obese.

Thompson (2004) in Aini (2009) stipulates some typical signs and symptoms in patients with anorexia nervosa as many as 29, but here the author only writes some general symptoms as follows:

1. Losing weight very drastically.

2. Withdraw from social life.

3. Obsession with food, calories, and recipes.

4. Looking for reasons not to eat food (such as: have eaten before, feel unwell).

5. Have unusual eating habits (eg cutting food into small pieces, picky food).

6. Limiting food choices to only diet foods.

7. Vomiting intentionally, taking laxatives, diets, or diet pills to control weight.

8. weight loss.

Meanwhile, (Davison, 2010) says that there are 4 characteristics needed to establish a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, including:

  1. The patient refuses to maintain a normal weight, this usually means that the person's weight is less than 85% of the body weight that is considered normal for his age and height.
  2. The patient is very afraid of gaining weight and this fear does not decrease with weight loss and never feels that he is thin enough.
  3. Sufferers have a distorted view of their body shape. Even in an emaciated condition they still feel that they are overweight or that certain body parts, especially the stomach, buttocks, and thighs are too fat.
  4. In female sufferers, a very thin body condition causes amenorrhoea, namely the cessation of menstrual periods.

In this case, the relationship between Anorexia Nervosa and Body Image is closely related to adolescent girls, when they have perceptions or views of people with ideal bodies who are used as models for the individual himself in order to achieve their own satisfaction with the body shape desired by the individual.

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