A Brief History of Guidance and Counseling, and its development

History of Guidance and Counseling, and its development

a. Human Development Efforts and Guidance

Every human being born in this world needs development to become as fully human as desired. The development is basically an effort to glorify humans to be fully human. Efforts to glorify humans are a big task that must be carried out carefully. The development of the flow of information and globalization requires humans to be able to develop all the potential that they have or have not had along with the challenges that must be faced in order to become a balanced human being between individual and social life, physical and spiritual, as well as life in the world and the hereafter. 

This kind of development is a manifestation of civilizing with the orientation of the formation of cultured humans or educational efforts with the orientation of developing the role and function of humans in society. Furthermore, humans who have developed, finally function as human resources that are useful for advanced and dynamic human life.

 b. A Brief History of Guidance and Counseling 

According to one particular priest's literature, the earliest counseling event in human history (though it must be further verified) was when Adam reaped the consequences of eating the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. Exactly when counseling began clearly requires more in-depth research, but thousands of other pieces of evidence show that from century to century humans have always asked for advice, guidance, and guidance from others who are considered to have superior knowledge, revelation, and superior experience (Robbert L. Gibson and Marianne H. . Mitchell, 2011). For some of the advisors and sages of Ancient Greece, Plato is recognized as the first person to organize psychological insight into a systematic "theory" and an integral and unified philosophical system. Belkin (1975, p. 5) notes that Plato:

c. Have very broad and deep interests

In examining individual psychology in all its aspects: moral issues, education, social relations, theological perspectives, and so on. He faces questions such as “What makes a human being superior – his inherited traits, his upbringing or his informal education?” (in Meno). “What is the most effective way to teach a child?” (in Republic). “Which technique is most successfully used to convince and influence people to make certain decisions and maintain/abandon their beliefs”‟‟ (in Gorgias). 

But it is not the question itself that proves the importance of the counselor's existence, but the method that Plato uses to answer it, a method more than any other method in the history of human thought in determining the best ways to conduct communicative counseling in a relationship. A dramatization method, trying to answer deep questions through the dynamics of real human interaction, a method in which characters and traits are considered as important as the things that are voiced.

The second great counselor in ancient civilization was Plato's own major student, Aristotle, who made many important contributions to what would later become the foundations of modern psychology. One of the most influential studies of Aristotle until now is his concept of the nature, patterns, and effects of human interaction with other people and their environment. 

Following the two great philosophers were Hippocrates and the ancient Greek "doctors" who offered the view that mental disorders are diseases that stem from natural causes. In other societies, such as the ancient Jews, for example, individuality and the right to self-determination became the main topics that colored their psychological insight, as can be seen from the sacred literature and religious texts.

In the early Christian community, the focus was directed at egalitarian practices and humanism through their "theory" of human relations, a concept that later became one of the foundations for the formation of a democratic society in early modernity, and later in the twentieth century culminated in the "counseling movement" in these communities. church. While the philosophers and educators Luis Vive (1492-1540) for example, recognized the need to guide individuals based on their behavior, background, interests, and talents, this Vives thought sparked the birth of the women's rights liberation movement which culminated in the women's equality movement. 

Vives in his book, De subventions Pauperum (Bruges, 1526) even demanded that girls should be prepared to enter into a field of work that she likes, and which is beneficial to herself and society” (Mallart, 1955, p. 75). In the Middle Ages, counseling efforts generally grew rapidly with the center under the control of religious institutions, which in the case of Europe, the church. In the early Middle Ages, the task of advising and directing young people was centered in the hands of the church. Sporadic attempts to place young people into appropriate occupations expanded with the development of European empires, and the expansion of colonial empires in the late Middle Ages. 

It was at this point, namely in the XXII century that the first books published specifically to help young people choose certain occupations appeared (Zytowski, 1972). A number of picture books were also launched to help describe the different areas of work more clearly. One of the most popular at the time was Tom of all Trades: Or the Plain Path Way to Preference.

Powell's work was published in 1631 in London. Zytowski (1972, p. 447) notes: “Powell provides a wealth of information about the existing professions and how to gain access to these fields of work, even citing sources of financial aid and schools that can help young people prepare for work. themselves." Looking at the development process of guidance, that which initially arises is vocational guidance, then followed by educational guidance, which then develops in the community which is called social guidance or social guidance because in practice guidance is faced by many individuals who have There are various kinds of problems, naturally also require various kinds of assistance, according to the problems and individuals faced, so that personal guidance was born. Recently, there is a trend in the United States, and in other countries, regarding career guidance. or career guidance.

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