Family Psychology: A Theoretical Study Of Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is very rare. In fact, one in three wives has experienced domestic violence. Another myth is that " the household is a private affair and what happens in it is not someone else's business and another myth. Violence against women in the domestic sphere is also the result of alcohol.

Alcohol is the biggest cause of domestic violence. In about 50 percent of cases, the offender is in a calm state during the assault. Alcohol can indeed be a trigger for assault, but the notion that alcohol causes violence is completely wrong. 

The causes of domestic violence are complex and have to do with the belief that men have power over women (and children), and can treat them harshly if they so wish.

By identifying and recognizing the forms of violence against women, including myths that support domestic violence, it is the responsibility of all parties, including the government and society, to try to break the chain of violence against women in the domestic sphere.

Definition of domestic violence (domestic violence)

Domestic violence is any act against a person, especially a woman, that results in physical, sexual, psychological, and/or domestic neglect misery, or suffering including threats to commit acts, coercion, or unlawful deprivation of liberty within the scope of the household. Law No. 23 Of 2004, Article 1). Included in household coverage under Article 2 are:

Husband, wife, and children;

  • Persons who are related by blood, marriage, breastfeeding, care, and guardianship, who live in the household; and/or
  • Working people help and stay in the household.
  • Forms Of Domestic Violence
  • Forms of domestic violence include several things. In-Law No. 23 of 2014, Article 5 explains that the forms of domestic violence include:

  1. Physical violence is an act that causes pain, falls ill, or is seriously injured. Psychological violence, that is, actions that result in fear, loss of self-confidence, loss of ability to act, feelings of helplessness, and/or severe psychological suffering in a person.
  2. Sexual violence is any act that reflects coercion of intercourse committed against people who live within the scope of the household, coercion of sexual relations against a person within the scope of his household with another person for commercial purposes and/or a specific purpose.
  3. Domestic neglect is the act of abandoning someone within the scope of the household, even though according to the law that applies to the person concerned or because of an agreement or agreement it is mandatory to provide maintenance, maintenance, or maintenance to that person.

Causes of domestic violence

Zastrow & Broker (in Wahab, 2010) said that there are 3 theories that can explain the occurrence of domestic violence, namely biological theory, control theory, and frustration-aggression theory.

1. Biological Theory

Biological theories view humans as beings born with aggressive instincts. The founder of psychodynamics, Sigmund Freud, explained that human beings have a death instinct that is manifested by harming and killing themselves or others. 

According to Konrad Lorenz, violence is very useful for survival. This action helps a person to gain dominance in the group. Some biologists argue that men have more hormones that cause aggressive behavior than women. This theory seems to provide an explanation for why domestic violence is more practiced by men.

2. Control Theory

Control theory explains that people who are dissatisfied in relation to others are prone to violence. In other words, people who have good relationships with others tend to be better able to control and control their aggressive behavior. 

Travis Hirschi through his findings supports this theory. It is stated that adolescent boys who behave aggressively are less likely to have good relationships with others. The same thing happens to ex-convicts in America who are also estranged from their friends and family.

3. Frustration-Aggression Theory

Frustration-aggression theory views violence as a person's way of reducing the tension caused by a frustrating situation. Frustrated people will commit aggression (violence) against the source of frustration or against others who can be used as an outlet. 

For example, a husband who lacks income and has low self-esteem expresses his frustration to his wife and children. This theory can also more or less explain the case that we raised in the paper” examination of domestic violence cases " involving Amir and Susi as perpetrators and victims of domestic violence.


Afandi, D., Rosa, W.Y., Suyanto, Khodijah, Widyaningsih, C. (2012). Characteristics of domestic violence cases. Journal Of The Indonesian Doctors Association, 62 (11), 435 – 438.

Margaretha, Nuringtyas, R., Rachim, R. (2013). The trauma of childhood violence and violence in intimate relationships. So Social Humanities Series, 17(1), 33-42. DOI: 10.7454/mesh.v17i1. 1800

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