Types Of Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is a type of extensive research. There are several types of research that can be classified into a type of qualitative research. The following can be described several types of research that are generally often used in qualitative research, namely: 1) case studies, 2) descriptive, 3) follow-up class, 4) phenomenology, 5) ethnography, 6) grounded theory, 7) history, and 8) hermeneutics. Each type of qualitative research can be described as follows.

1. Research Case Study (Case Study)

A case study is one of the research methods that are often used in the social sciences. For about fifteen years, precisely since 1993, along with the growing popularity of case study research, a lot of definitions of case study research have been raised by experts about case study research (Creswell, 1998).

Meanwhile, in view of the Bent Flyvbjerg, research using this method is done in the examination of longitudinal in-depth against a state or event that is referred to as the case of using a systematic manner in the conduct of observation, data collection, information analysis, and reporting of results.

As a result, will obtain a deep understanding of why things happen and can become the basis for further research. Although the hypothesis in qualitative research should be no, be no, case studies can be used to generate and test hypotheses.

2. Descriptive research descriptive 

Research (descriptive research), often also referred to as research taxonomic (taxonomic research). It is said so because this research is intended to explore or clarify a phenomenon, phenomenon, or social reality that is there. Descriptive research seeks to describe a number of variables related to the problem and the unit under study. 

Descriptive research does not question the relationship between the variables that exist because descriptive research is not meant to attract a generation that causes such symptoms, phenomena, or social reality happened thus. 

Descriptive research is a research method used to find the knowledge seeks-the breadth of the research object at a particular time. Meanwhile, according to Punaji Setyosari, he explained that research is descriptive research that aims to explain or describe a situation, event, an object is a person, or everything related to the variable-variables that can be described better with numbers or words

Actually in descriptive research can be distinguished in several types, namely: 1) case studies, 2) the survey, 3) the study of the development, 4) follow-up study, 5) documentary analysis, and 6) trend analysis.

    1) Case Study

That is an intensive investigation about the individual, and or social unit that is carried out in-depth by finding all the important variables on the development of the individual or social unit being studied. In this study made possible, the discovery of things unexpected can then be used to create a hypothesis.

    2) Survey

Studies of this type is a study collection of data in relatively limited cases a relatively large number. The goal is to gather information about the variables and not about individuals. Based on the scope (the census or survey samples) and the subject (the real thing or not a real), the census can be grouped into several categories, namely: census about things that are real, the census about things that are not real, the survey sample about real things, and the survey sample about things that are not real.

    3) Study of the development

This study is a study that was conducted to obtain reliable information how the properties of the child at different ages, how their differences in levels of that age, as well as how they grow and develop. This is usually done by the method of longitudinal and methods cross-sectional.

    4) follow-up Study

Namely, studies that investigate the development of the subject after being given a treat or specific conditions or subjected to certain conditions.

    5) Analysis of the documentary

These studies are often also called content analysis, which can also be used to investigate the variables of the sociological and psychological.

    6) trend Analysis

Namely, the analysis is used to forecast the state in the future by paying attention to trends.

    7) correlation Studies

That is the type of descriptive research that aims to determine the relationship between the variables studied.

        In the management and analysis of data, descriptive research generally uses the processing of the descriptive statistics (descriptive statistics) for quantitative descriptive research, while qualitative descriptive research can use the analysis data model Spradley, interactive model according to Miles and Huberman, and content analysis (content analysis), or focus group discussion (FGD).

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Bent Flyvbjerg, Five Misunderstandings About Case Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry, Vol.12, No. 2, April 2006, h.219-245, lihat lebih lnjut dalam http:// id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studi_kasus diakses 2 April 2015.

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