Research Approach Phenomenology, Ethnography, Grounded Theory, History, and Hermeneutics

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4. Research Phenomenological

Is the tradition of qualitative research that is rooted in the Quran and psychology, and focuses on the experiences of human life (sociology). A phenomenological approach is almost similar to the approach of hermeneutics that uses life experiences as a tool to understand better the socio-cultural, political, or historical context in which the experience occurs. 

Of the various branches of qualitative research, all of the same opinion regarding the purpose of understanding the subject of the research, namely to see it from “their point of view”, and this is the construct of the study. Phenomenology is derived from the Greek by origin syllables phenomenon (symptoms/phenomenon). Phenomenology also means the science (logos) of what it looks like (phenomenon). 

So, phenomenology was learning what it looks or what it appeared. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) phenomenology is the science about the development of awareness and the introduction of the human self as the science that precedes philosophy. From the definition above it can be concluded that phenomenology is the science of knowledge about what seemed about a symptom or phenomenon that had become the human experience that can be used as a benchmark to conduct qualitative research.

5. Research Ethnography

One of the other approaches in qualitative research is ethnography. Ethnography is known as the determinant of the forerunner to the birth of anthropology. In addition, the basic principle in the study of ethnography trying to assess naturally the individual or people who live in the situation of a particular culture. On the basis of this reason leads to the study of ethnography is known as naturalistic inquiry. The term ethnography is derived from the word ethno (the nation) and graphic (outlines). Ethnographic roots of anthropology are basically the research activities to understand the way people interact and work together through a phenomenon observed in everyday life. 

So ethnography typically aimed at reducing a culture thoroughly, i.e. all aspects of culture, both materials as cultural artifacts (tools, clothing, buildings, and so on) and that are abstract, such as experiences, beliefs, norms, and value systems of the group studied. Description thick (think the description) is the main characteristic of xenograft. Research ethnography includes one approach of qualitative research. Research ethnography in the field of education inspired by similar research developed in the field of sociology and anthropology.

6. Research Grounded Theory 

According to Charmaz (2009), grounded theory refers to a set of inductive methods systematically to conduct qualitative research with the aim for the development of the theory. The term theory suggests a double reference, namely: (1) a method consisting of the strategy of methodological flexibility and (2) the product of the type of investigation. The strategy of grounded theory methodology aims to build a theory of medium-level directly from the data analysis. The inductive method theoretically is the center of their logic. The results of the analysis, which built its power come from the basis of empirical strong. This analysis provides the focus, the abstract, the conceptual theory that explains the phenomenon empirically studied.

7. Research History (History) 

Research history (history) is one type of research that is directed to dig aspects of the historicity of the perspective of the present. Historical research appears because of the many events, artifacts, and objects of archaeology, which is the legacy of past civilizations not yet explored. The excavation is carried out to uncover the facts, the reality, as well as the sustainability of civilization, which may be beneficial for the development of civilization or the science of the present. 

Historical research has a territory (territorial) study very wide so that it is possible to be studied by anyone who has a concern for this field. Because this study is historic, then study this course contains aspects of the historical, heroism, excellence, and exemplary. Therefore, the study of history has a mission of historical, heroism, excellence, and exemplary that can be a lesson (I'tibar) for the generation that was born then.

8. Research Hermeneutics 

Etymologically, the root of the word hermeneutics comes from the Greek hermeneutic, which means ‘interpret’. Then, a noun hermeneia it can literally be interpreted as “interpretation” or interpretation (E. Sumaryono,1999:23). In terms that are directly contained essential elements, namely: reveal, explain, and translate. As for the origins of hermeneutics itself, that when Hermesmenyampaikan message parade to man and hermeneutics, in the end, be defined as ‘the process of changing something or a situation of ignorance is to be understood’

According to Ricouer (Bleicher, 2003: 357), the text of which understood by Hermeneutics is the presence of the autonomy of the text, the context of the socio-cultural and address of the original permit the preconditions for the beat interpreter of the text. In understanding the text, then between text, author, and the reviewer should be connected with the reality of the society that is contemporary, so these three elements must work together, though there is a disconnection between the text and the author in terms of the subject.

References

Charmaz, Kathy. “Grounded Theory.” The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods,. SAGE Publications. 24 May. 2009. 
E. Sumaryono, Hermeneutik. Sebuah Metode Filsafat, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1999, hlm. 23
Ricoeur, Paul. 2003. dalam Josef Bleicher, Hermeneutika Kontemporer, Terj. Ahmad Norma Permata.Yogyakarta:Fajar Pustaka

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