Design Research in Education and Social

The design of the study is important because it is a strategy to get the required data for the purposes of testing a hypothesis or to answer the research question. In addition, the research design is also used as a tool to control the variables that are influential in the study. Research design distinguishes this model in the conduct of research and the research model has a name and the procedure associated with the model. In doing research, particularly for quantitative research, one of the important steps is to make the design of the study.

A. Understanding Design 

Research Design is an aspect of design that is important and should be considered in carrying out research. The design of the study led the researchers to follow the steps or research procedures that must be followed and should not be deviated from the steps or the procedure. 

In this research, mixed methods research, for example, Creswell and Clark (2005) argue that in a study mixed-method research in particular explanatory design procedures, research specifically gives greater emphasis on the significance of quantitatively compared chapters qualitative. King, Keohane, and Verba (1994) in Thomas (2003) stated that the creation of quantitative research seeks to measurement and analysis can be repeated by research-research the other. 

As in qualitative research, as described by Denzin and Lincoln (1994) suggest that the significance of this study sought to clarify the interpretation of the natural environment (natural setting), the feelings, and the views of respondents or interpret their symptoms. Because of that, the traditions of qualitative research seeks to collect material that can be used as a case study, personal experience, introspective, life story, and so on.

In other words, the traditions of this qualitative study sought to understand the personal stories and the way they interact (Denzin and Lincoln 1994) in Thomas (2003). In accordance with the second view of this expert, Greene (2007) in Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010) stated that the use of research methods combined (mixed methods research) refers to the use of kaedah a complement for each qualitative and quantitative research are the same throughout the research process, with the integration of prevailing on the analysis of the data. 

Nau (1995) in Gratton and Jones (2010) also stated that the use of qualitative and quantitative research methods can produce the final product with the highlight (highlight) a significant donation from the two existing methods. For example, qualitative data (qualitative data) can be used to support and elaborate on the purpose of quantitative research (Jayaratne (1993) in Gratton and Jones (2010), namely to give some explanation of the quantitative measure.

B. The purpose of the research design

The design of the study has two main objectives, namely to answer the research and the variance escort (Baba, 1999). According to Creswell to understand educational research, researchers need to understand the map of the research process. Creswell also stated that there is at least eight research design used in the research, pedagogical, namely: 1. The conception of the experimental 2. Design Correlaal 3. The survey design (survey design) 4. Design theory is established (the conception of theoretical) 5. Design ethnographic (the conception of ethnography) 6. Study design narrative (research design narrative) 7. Design mixed method (mixed-method designs) 8. Design action research (action research design). 

In quantitative research, research design uses a questionnaire as the main instrument in data search, while the interview is used as an instrument of support. To answer the research question, data were collected using a questionnaire constructed by the researchers. Instrument the questionnaire is to describe the description of substance of the variables is constructed. 

In other words, a theory built (some theory) used to describe the variable must be translated into the increase of the questions in the instrument (questionnaire). In addition, the formulation/translation issue grid built on the questionnaire must be addressed to respond to the formulation of the problem indicated.

C. The formation of the relationship variables 

The design of the study the following is an example of a flow analysis of inference that is used consists of viewing the relationship that exists between the dependent variable and the independent variables. If in the search, it is indicated that the dependent variable involves the performance of work. 

Can be designed by the work according to the who, for example, according to Evans (1981), Dharma (1985), Flippo (1987), Sinungan (1987), and Sharif (1987) showed that the performance of the work includes 1) work productivity, 2 ) Quality of work, 3) the Initiative Work, 4) the Team Work and 5) Problem Solving, While the independent variable is on participative leadership. 

For example, the design of the study (design stored) can for example be taken from the opinion of Thomas, J. Barry (1997) which states that the leadership of the participatory include 1) the Delegation, 2) Group Meeting, 3) Team Work, 4) the Team of quality education, 5) process improvement team and 6) the team the increase of the project. 

To see the flow of variable reflection in the design of the design with each independent variable (the independent variable) and the dependent variable (the dependent variable) can be considered in the design flow the following search:


Cresswell, Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2005, p. 281. Three

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