The History of Counseling Profession

A. History of the Counseling Profession in 1800

1. Formed the social movements of the 1800s

During the 1800s reform movements occurred simultaneously which ultimately influenced the development of the counseling profession. Social workers who work with the poor and destitute, psychiatrists who try to change mental treatment, and educators such as John Dewey (1859-1952) (Ed Neukrrug (2007:41).

2. Vocational tutoring in the 1800s.

Vocational and theoretical guidance activities began in the late 1800s, by the 10th-century books on job information had been written, while the first occupational classification system was developed in early 1468 by Sanchez de Arevalo, who wrote Mirror of Men's Lives (Carson & Altai, 1994).

In the late 19th century, dramatic changes occurred in the United States that were partly responsible for the beginning of the vocational guidance movement and ultimately establishing the formation of the counseling profession. The emergence of vocational guidance was marked by the emergence of social reform movements that were the impact of the Industrial Revolution, and an increase in immigration to large northeastern cities. So it requires vocational guidance to get a job. (Ed Neukrrug (2007:42).

3. Start of movement Test (test)

According to DuBois, 1970; Williamson, 1964 (in According to Ed Neukrrug, 2007:42) The vocational guidance movement was the beginning of the testing movement. The development of scientific laboratories in Europe and the United States giving distribution increased interest in examining individual differences. Like: intelligence tests conducted by Alfred Binet's intelligence. This test was developed in 1896 to assist individuals and institutions in making significant decisions for the counseling profession.

4. Development of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy

The development of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy began to appear marked by Freud's theory of psychoanalysis to see the development of people. Constructions that have never been discussed have become commonplace and continue to be accepted in today's world. Freud and his students coined terms such as id, ego, superego, unconsciousness, and ordinary psychic psychosexual development (Ed Neukrrug (2007:42).

B. The Beginning of Modern Counseling (1900-1950)

1. The First Beginning of vocational guidance and counselor guidance

The first part of the twentieth century was systematic vocational guidance in the United States. The person who had a major impact on the development of vocational guidance in the United States was Frank Parsons (1854-1908) (Briddick: 2009, Mc Daniels and Watts: 1994). Regarded as the founder of coaching in the United States. Parsons was greatly influenced by the reform movement of the time. Parsons eventually founded the Vocational Bureau, where individuals are assisted in “choosing jobs, preparing for work, finding gaps in them and building career efficiency and success,” (Parsons: Quoted in Jones: 1994,:288). 

Parsons hopes that vocational guidance will eventually be established in community schools. In 1998, Parsons died and after his death perhaps as a tribute to the energy he gave to the vocational guidance movement, his hometown Boston became the site for a vocational guidance conference, his hometown Boston became the site for the first vocational guidance conference. This conference resulted in the founding of the National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) in 1913, which is generally considered the beginning of the American Counseling Association (ACA). 

Frank Parsosn considered systematic vocational guidance in schools, anticipated the national vocational guidance movement, foresaw the importance of individual counseling, and he hoped for a society where cooperation was more important than competence and where greed replaced defense (Jones, 1994). It is clear that Parson's principles on vocational guidance have profoundly influenced the wider field of counseling. Parsons' main thrust towards vocational guidance is seen as a three-part process described in the following way:

  1. A clear understanding of themselves, their talents, interests, ambitions, resources, limitations, and problems,
  2. Knowledge of the terms and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, competencies, opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work, and
  3. Correct reasoning on the relationship of the facts of the two groups, (Parsons, 1909-1989:05)

2. Expansion of the Test Movement

With the emergence of the vocational guidance movement, testing became commonplace, strongly advocating the use of tests in vocational guidance (Williamson, 1964). The use of tests in vocational counseling to help produce major interest developments in 1927 (Campbell, 1968). This test is still in revision from one of the most widely used instruments of its kind, to revolutionize vocational counseling. In the mid-20th century, tests were used to measure achievement, cognitive abilities, interests, intelligence, and personality traits. Although often used in vocational counseling, many of these tests soon found their way into all types of counseling practice.

3. The Spread of Psychotherapy and Its Impact on the Counseling Profession

At the end of World War I, a number of psychologists offered their services to help individuals who had psychological problems associated with war (today the problem is often diagnosed as a post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD). Master's-level assistants often have degrees in social work, but there are increasingly individuals with relatively recent degrees in masters of counseling, which started out as a degree in vocational guidance. It is a natural transition for individuals with this degree to move into the mental health field, as they are trained in both counseling and assessment techniques.

The emergence of the field of counseling as something other than purely vocational guidance made its greatest leap forward during the 1930s when EG Williamson (1900-1979) developed what is considered the first theory of comprehensive counseling (as distinguished from Freud's theory of psychoanalysis). Williamson's approach originally grew out of the ideas of Frank Parsons. Although initially grew from the ideas of Frank Parsons. Although initially vocationally oriented, the general approach to counseling and psychotherapy. The trait and factor approach involve a series of five steps, including:

  1. Analysis: checking the problem and obtaining available records and testing on the client,
  2. Synthesis: summarizing and organizing information to understand the problem,
  3. Diagnosis: interpret the problem,
  4. Counseling: assisting individuals in finding solutions, and
  5. Follow-up: ensure appropriate support after termination of the counseling process (Patterson, 1973).

C. Modern Counseling Now (1950-2000)

In this era there are five changes, namely:

  1. In 1950 i.e. emergence, expansion, and divergence
  2. In 1960 that is the increase in truth
  3. In 1970, the profession continued from the field of counseling guidance.
  4. In 1980-2000 the last changes in the field.
  5. In 2000, the new Millennium took place

References

Neukrug, Ed. 2007. The world of the counselor: an introduction to the counseling profession.United States: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

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