Professional Setting Objectives And Priorities (Psychology, Counseling, And Therapy)

One of the main characteristics of professional workers is having the autonomy to set their goals and also having the ability and integrity to evaluate the results of their professional practice. To justify and maintain this belief, professional counselors must be able to rely on themselves for their work, clients, client systems, and society.

  1. Human Effectiveness Models

There are many theorists who have built models of human development and human effectiveness that help us conceptualize existing guidelines and set goals to be achieved when we work with clients. Our paradigm so far is that what 'mature' or 'healthy' or 'beneficial' humans produce is a reflection or product of our values? It is based on the perception of what is good, what is right and what is beautiful in our lives as human beings, in the society in which we live, in the world in which we live (Smith, 1961).

If we know the limitations inherent in the following models then we can use them as a useful starting point for our careers to define general goals and professional priorities.

  1. Maslow's concept of "self-actualization"

Literally self-actualization means the fulfillment or realization of self-potential, namely talent, intelligence, and capacity. The idea of ​​development as the fulfillment of one's highest potential is in line with the values ​​of professional counseling. The following is a list of fifteen characteristics of self-actualization by Maslow:

  1. Have a realistic orientation
  2. Accept yourself and others
  3. Spontaneity
  4. Focus on the problem
  5. Not easily influenced
  6. Have autonomy and independence
  7. Giving appreciation to other people and things or objects
  8. Have an immersive experience
  9. Having concern and compassion for human beings
  10. Have deep interpersonal relationships
  11. Instilling democratic values ​​and being democratic
  12. Able to resolve ethnic concerns with firmness and certainty
  13. Have a psychological sense of humor
  14. Creative, original and able to think in a different way
  15. Denial of nonconformity


  1. Allport “Personal Maturity”

The following are the characteristics of a mature or mature personality according to Allport:

  1. Able to develop themselves , have the capacity to be a member and care for others.
  2. Fosters good relationships with others, has the capacity to express love and emotions intimately to others.
  3. Able to control emotions, and also able to suppress depression in themselves.
  4. Have realistic perception and cognition, able to focus the energy available only to do important things.
  5. Able to accept oneself, have insight and a sense of humor, be able to understand oneself, and have awareness, and be able to see someone from a wide perspective.
  6. Having a single philosophy of life, having a unified and integrated way of life.
  1. Roger “The Person Who Functions Optimally”

"Fully Functioning Person" or a person who plays his function optimally is defined as what a person has done, not with regard to who he is, or how he is (Rogers, 1962). Rogers argues that people who play an optimal function are those who open a new sheet of experience and are able to see the possibilities that exist. Rogers further argues about functioning optimally by describing it as a "process that is of value to a mature person".

  1. Jahoda “Normal Behavior”

Marie Jahoda (1958) briefly described the notion of a healthy mental state or 'normal behavior'. He described that someone who is mentally healthy or behaves normally is someone who controls the surrounding environment, shows unity and consistency, and is able to perceive himself and the world realistically.

  1. Shoben “Normal Personality”

Shoben developed Jahoda's theory, he turned it into a normal personality. The concept of 'normal' is having the same sense of what the wants and expectations of a population are as well as most individuals in that environment. Shoben mentions there are 4 characteristics to being 'normal':

  1. Having a willingness to accept the consequences of one's attitude or behavior.
  2. Have the capacity for interpersonal relationships.
  3. Have a bond or obligation to society.
  4. Have a commitment to live with ideals and standards.

The models described above are basically trying to optimize human function which is obtained from personal experience, existing values ​​and prejudices from their tutors.

  1. Model of Empirical Experience
  1. Barron "Sound Personality"

Baron (1954) conducted a study to optimize the function, he selected a population derived from university graduates from several faculties. The concept of this research is to determine the maturity and effectiveness of an individual in fostering interpersonal relationships.

From his study, Baron classified the characteristics that emerged from the two existing groups:

  1. Effectiveness in organizing work.
  2. Have accurate perception.
  3. Ethical integrity.
  4.  Adaptation to self and others.


  1. Heats “Healthy Personality”

According to the Heat model, healthy growth processes include:

  1. Symbolization, the individual's ability to represent experiences in words, numbers, pictures, music and attitudes
  2. Allocentric, is a term used for those who are or have changed to leave their respective egocentric.
  3. Integration, increasing consistency in a person's growth between self-image and the perception of others in assessing the individual .
  4. Stabilization, a healthy person grows into someone who is stable over time.
  5. Autonomous, someone who grows up healthy tends to be someone who has more confidence in external expectations and influences.

Strupp & Hadley identified three different sources for the emergence of the concept of healthy and optimal functioning, namely; The first source comes from psychologists and scientists who study human behavior, the second source comes from society itself, and the last comes from social role expectations.

  1. Turning Common Goals Into Professional Practice

In the counseling process, the counselor helps the client to think about, clarify and reclaim the goals to be achieved by the client, a counselor helps the client to move and take steps forward in order to achieve the goals that have been formulated.

  1. Success Indicator

Indicators of success help the client tie the goals he wants to achieve in a specific time, place, situation, and attitude. Being more sensitive is one indication of success.

  1. Needs assessment

In a needs assessment we seek to identify what needs the client or client system requires in a specific sense that the client is willing to work earnestly and in a practical way now and in the future. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and choose priorities in determining goals and selecting appropriate success indicators

  1. Objective Attitude

Since objectivity measures progress, it must be something observable. Here are the three main characteristics of an objective attitude;

  • The objective is expressed in an observable form of attitude.
  • The objective specifies the place or situation in which the behavior occurs.
  • Objectives specify standard criteria to identify when attitudes

When we are able to establish a specific objective attitude with the client then we can monitor progress, provide feedback, about effective counseling procedures and ensure that clients get simulation and satisfaction from their achievements.

  1. Measuring Goal Achievement

Counselors are able to measure achievement goals with clients having important tools that can be used to improve the quality of their professional practice.

In a real sense the client counselor relationship has become an "open system" capable of getting feedback and controlling its own operations. One way that one can monitor and measure goal attainment is a method called the “goal attainment scale” (Kiresuk & Sherman, 1968). In this method the counselor and client assess the latter's needs in the manner described earlier.


Donald H.Blocher ( 2007).The Professional Counselor. New York : Macmilan Publishing Company.Page 73-202)

Berlangganan update artikel terbaru via email:

0 Response to "Professional Setting Objectives And Priorities (Psychology, Counseling, And Therapy)"

Post a Comment

Iklan Atas Artikel

Iklan Tengah Artikel 1

Iklan Tengah Artikel 2

Iklan Bawah Artikel