Identification Of Counselors (What, Who, How)

A. Counseling And The Difference With Guidance And Psychotherapy.

Counseling is a professional relationship that empowers individuals, families, and groups to achieve mental health, educational success, and achieve desired careers. Counseling is thinking of a problem and a rational approach to help normal people (Williamson, 1950:1958). Counseling is short-term, now, here, listening, problem-solving, and awareness.

 In the 20th century mentoring was described as the act of guiding someone into a profession and offering advice for skills in life. So that guidance contains an understanding of advice, direction, on the surface (beginning and not deep), advocacy and support.

Psychotherapy is dark, covert, sexual, conscious, ill, hidden, long-term, and reconstructive. In accordance with the development of psychoanalysis towards the end of the 19th century, the term psychotherapy, which means "caring for the soul", means an action or process to heal or care for one's soul.

B. Comparison of the Counseling Profession with Other Professions

Currently, several counselors in schools are starting to do therapy, counseling, clinical counseling, social advocacy (fight for their rights), and other counseling as well as family and psychological therapy for treatment and differences in various professions:

        1. Counselor

A few years ago, the word counselor was used more of a “profession that practices counseling” (Chaaplin, 1975). However, with the passage of time, at this time, society calls for counselors when the counselor completes his master's degree education (in the United States/USA), while in Indonesia the counselor is an educator who has completed the Guidance and Counseling S-1 program after which he continued his profession. Counselor (PPK). Today, counselors come across multiple backgrounds and a wide variety of rules. For example, counselors will set up school counselors, rehabilitation counselors, and counselors in business and industry. 

Counselor training is more extensive than previously thought, they/counselors receive individual, group, and family counseling. With the development of thought experiences related to the master's program, counseling becomes the main thing that must be done by the counselor, and next is the community of counselors or several other specialists. There are some that describe more generally the area of ​​specialist counseling, namely:

  1. School counselor
  2. Community agents and mental health counselors,
  3. School counselors and counselors in student practice matters.
  4. Pastoral counselors, known in Indonesia as denan (Islamic counseling)
  5. Rehabilitation counselor
  6. Marriage, couples, and family counselors.
  7. Creative and Art Therapist

Expressive therapists include play therapists, movement/dance therapists, and music therapists, who use creative tools to work with individuals who have experienced significant trauma or pain in their lives (Buger & Yuokeles, 2004; Mills & Daniluk, 2002). ). Through the use of creative therapists, it is hoped that people can gain an in-depth understanding of themselves.

        3. Psychoanalyst

Psychoanalysts are professionals who have been trained by recognized psychoanalytic institutions. Although initially the American Psychoanalytical Association (APsaA) only allowed psychiatrists to attend training. However, it is now possible for other mental health professionals to attend training.

        4. Health Nurse

She is a professional nurse in the medical field but skilled in providing mental health services. Obtain education and training in medicine and basic counseling skills. Licensed nurses are members of the Nurses American Psychiatric Association (APNA).

        5. Psychiatrist

A psychiatrist is a licensed physician who has generally completed a residency in a psychiatrist, meaning that in addition to medical school, he or she has completed extensive placement field training in a mental health setting. Psychiatrists work in mental health institutions, hospitals, private practice settings, and health care organizations. The professional association for psychiatrists is called the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

        6. Psychologist

There are different types of psychologists practicing in various institutions, private practice, health care organizations, universities, businesses, the prison industry, and schools. Psychologists are often found in administration, consulting with business and industry, or in supervisory roles for all types of mental health professionals. Generally, psychologists have a bachelor's degree in psychology and have passed the state licensing exam. In America, psychologists are members of the American Psychological Association (APA).

  1. Clinical Psychologist. Has a duty to assist clients in reducing the inability to adjust and achieve psychological well-being (experiencing serious disorders).
  2. Counseling Psychologist. Having the task of helping clients who are relatively healthier (the disorders experienced are still mild compared to those handled by clinical psychologists).
  3. School Psychologist. Work closely with parents and teachers in learning programs, focusing more on consultation, evaluation, assessment, intervention, research, and planning.
  4. Psychotherapy. Psychotherapists are not associated with any particular area of ​​mental health practice. Most countries do not regulate laws regarding psychotherapists because there is no training/education to qualify someone as a psychotherapist. But in practice, the practice of psychotherapy can be done by people who have a professional license in mental health, such as psychologists.
  5. Social worker. Basically the word social worker can be accepted to someone who is in college or someone who is in college or someone who has completed S-I in the field of social work. Recently we learned that the word social worker became associated with someone who has a master's degree in social work. Today social workers provide counseling and psychotherapy for all types of counselees in a wider variety of settings, including child welfare services, government support social services representatives, family service representatives, private practice, and hospitals. Social workers usually have more extensive training, in practice counseling techniques but less preparation in career counseling, assessment techniques, and qualitative research methods.

C. Professional associations in Social Services

In order to protect the rights of their members and support the philosophical beliefs of their membership, professional associations have emerged over the years, for every profession in the social service. Of the many benefits that associations tend to offer:

  1. National and regional conferences to discuss clinical and training issues,
  2. Askes to malpractice insurance (access error in practice).
  3. Lobbyists to protect the interests of their members, Newsletters, and journals to cover topics of interest to its membership,
  4. Opportunities for network monitoring,
  5. Information about issues that occur in the field,
  6. Codes of ethics and standards for practice, and
  7. Job bank

Several other major associations in the field of social services are also worth highlighting, and there are dozens of professional organizations in social services. There are several things that are more famous or popular, namely as follows:

  1. The American counseling association (ACA)
  2. The American Art Therapy Association (AATA)
  3. The American Association of Marriage and Family Therapists (AAMFT)
  4. The American Psychiatric Association (APA)
  5. The American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA)
  6. The American Psychological Association (APA)
  7. The National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
  8. The National Organization for Human Services (HOHS)

D. Characteristics of an Effective Helper

What makes counseling effective? In recent years there has been an increasing importance of suitable treatment and more work with addressing the problem. Based on his review and practice, it became a general acceptance of the field. There are eight characteristics that are experiential or theoretical to be an effective counselor. There are some small doubts in the research to be pure, some characteristics will change the counselee's condition. There are 8 characteristics to be an effective counselor are:

  1. Therapeutic Alliance. The relationship between counselor and client is the most important factor in creating client change.
  2. Empathy. According to Rogers, empathy means being able to feel exactly what is expressed by the counselee and communicate his understanding/response to the counselee. Listening carefully and acting is one of the most powerful ways to bring out the pigeons.
  3. Reception. Acceptance is an attitude that shows whatever is expressed by the counselee in the context of the counseling relationship, the counselee feels accepted. In any counseling approach, acceptance is always emphasized.
  4. Authenticity. Authenticity refers to the counselor's ability to be authentic, open to the relationship between feelings and thoughts in the relationship that occurs during counseling. Authenticity is related to emotional intelligence, including the ability to monitor one's emotions, which indicates that the counselor is in a state of harmony with his thoughts, words, and behavior.
  5. Open-minded. Belkin (1998) states that open-mindedness in a counseling setting can be defined as freedom from fixed preconceptions and an attitude of open acceptance of the client's expression.
  6. Cognitive complexity. It consists of a variety of abilities or levels of cognitive abilities that are complex or very gradually.
  7. Psychological adjustment. Related to adjustment to the environment, which includes: services that are useful to convey or mandate in the educational profession.
  8. Competence. The expertise and competence of counselors have proven to be an important element in the success of the counselee in the counseling process. To improve competence, counselors must always increase knowledge by studying, guidance from more experts, reading journals, and joining professional organizations. Competence is an ethical and legal responsibility for a counselor.


Neukrug, Ed. 2007. The world of the counselor: an introduction to the counseling profession.United States: Thomson Brooks/Cole

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