History Of The Counseling Profession

According to Ed Neukrrug (2007:34) `When viewed from the history of mental health, the counseling profession can be divided into three areas, namely:

1. Social Work Area

        a. Historical Background

The field of social work developed from a desire to help the poor, by creating a community organization called the Charity Organization Society (COS). In the 1940s the field of social work focused on social casework, social group work, and community work. In 1955 a number of social work organizations were combined to form the National Association for Social Work (NASW). In 1965, founded the NASW Certified Academy of Social Workers (ACSW), which sets the standard of practice for master's level social workers. And nowadays, social workers can be found in various social services such as hospitals, mental health centers, and agencies that work with the homeless and the poor.

        2. Psychologist Profession

Thousands of years ago The origins of the psychology profession can be traced. For example, in the seventh century BC, Greek philosophers reflected on the nature of life and the universe. Several centuries later, the Greek philosopher Hippocrates offered ideas about how to treat mental illness, and Plato (427-347 BC) suggested that introspection and reflection are the paths to knowledge, that dreams and fantasies are substitute gratifications, and that the human condition has a physical, moral, and spiritual origin.

Augustine (354-430 AD) and Thomas Aquinas (12225-1274 AD) emphasized the importance of mindfulness, self-examination, and investigation, there is a lack of writing about "psychological thought". One of the natural outcomes of laboratory science was the development of psychosis and educational tests in the late 19th century. For example, Alfred Binet (1857-1911), for the department of public education in Paris, developed one of the first intelligence tests, which was used to assist in the class placement of mentally retarded children, (Neukrug and Fawcett, 2010). The early 20th century saw the first use of school achievement tests, tests for vocational assessment, and some modern personality tests.

Today, tests are used everywhere and often help provide clients with a deeper understanding. In 1892, the American Psychological Association (APA) was founded as an association of mostly experimental psychologists (Sokal, 1992). During the mid-1940s, the APA underwent major revisions and was recently assimilated into clinical associations such as counseling psychologists (Division 17) (Pepinsky, 2001; Routh, 2000; Schmidt: 2000).

2. The Effect of Psychology on the Counseling Profession

The field of psychology has influenced the counseling profession more than any other related mental health profession. Although psychology was the first profession to use a comprehensive approach to therapy, the field of counseling soon followed and warranted much of the theory used by psychologists. The test was developed by psychologists, at the turn of the 20th century used by guidance and vocational counselors and then adapted by counselors in many different settings.

The early research techniques developed by experimental psychologists became precursors to the modern research tools used by counselors to assess the effectiveness of counseling approaches and evaluate the programs they have developed. Finally, many modern counseling skills are adaptations of the counseling skills developed by psychologists during the early part of the 20th century. Psychology is really counseling's first cousin.

3. Psychiatry Profession

Until the late 1700s, mental illness was generally seen as mystical, demonic, and incurable. But this perspective is gradually providing a new approach to understanding and treating mental illness. In the late 1700s, in France, Philippe Pinel (1745-1826), who has crowned the founder of psychiatry. During the 1800s, great strides were made in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of mental illness.

Emil Kaerepin (1855-1926) developed one of the earliest classifications of mental illness, and Jean-Martin Charot (1825-1893) and Pierre Janet (1859-1947) both looked at the relationship between certain psychological states and disorders previously thought to be of a purely natural nature ( Solomon, 1918). In the United States (USA), Benjamin Rush (1743-1813), a physician and social reformer special, is considered the founder of United States psychiatry.

4. Influence of Psychiatry on the Counseling Profession

Psychiatry's focus on diagnosing mental illness and exploring psychopathology is assisted by counselors and other professionals in diagnosing and developing treatment plans for clients, which sometimes includes psychopharmacology. In addition, the awareness that some mental health problems may naturally occur has helped counselors understand that at this time it is important to make referrals to an expert in psychopharmacology and psychobiology.

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