The Basic Concept of Collaborative Career Guidance in Schools

Collaborative Career Guidance Talking about collaborative career guidance, of course, cannot be separated from the discussion about what the discussion is about career guidance, collaborative and collaborative career guidance. Career guidance can be defined as a business that counselors (professional and trained) do to help individuals (in this case students) understand themselves and their environment related to the process of selecting and developing themselves towards a suitable career will be fostered through a series of guidance and counseling activities. 

While the term collaborative comes from the language In English, collaborative means working together or collaboration which means cooperation. In the sense that More broadly, Frans & Bursuck (1996:74) defines collaborative as the style/method chosen by professionals to achieve common goals. This implies that individuals involved in activities collaborative work have the same goal, should not be different, so it requires a mechanism planning, implementing, evaluating, and following up together so that a common goal will be achieved can be realized. 

This is in accordance with the opinion of Idol & Baran (in Schmidt, 2003:60) which states that collaborative, planning and implementation is a joint effort. This means that ineffective collaborative implementation, planning, and implementation activities are joint efforts. The term collaborative in the science of counseling and psychotherapy according to Bertolino & O'Hanlon (2001) occurs in: a fairly long development, by describing the development of the pattern of guidance and counseling services collaboratively into three patterns, namely 

  • A reference pattern that focuses on physical, pathological, and past experiences then dominated by psychoanalytic theory, psychodynamics, and biological psychiatry based on pathology. Pattern This reference service prioritizes reasoning results of analytical thinking, based on classical principles, the role of conditioning, and contributions to in-depth analysis of psychoanalysis. 
  • Change the service pattern looking from metaphysical and past actions to present actions. In family counseling, the term Intraphysical is an interaction in studying relationships, which means that the shape of each other's personality is not because of the influence of the length of interaction with other people, but from communication patterns, family, social relationships, stimulation and response. This pattern was developed in the 1950s. In this pattern, the counselor is responsible for helping to solve the client's problem by determining the dysfunction of the relationship through its aspects. such as family structure, roles, rules, boundaries and interventions for change, distractions, action patterns, and interaction, 
  • Collaborative-based service patterns starting from something that has been developed and analyzed which began in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This pattern was originally performed by a family therapist who using collaborative activities in family therapy to get optimal results for individuals in the family. By prioritizing competency-based collaboration, therapists/counselors put forward various strengths, abilities, and resources to improve results better therapy/counseling in the future. 

Collaborative Career Guidance 

Principles Referring to the principles of collaborative guidance and counseling proposed by Bertolino & O'Hanlon (2002:19-25), then the principles of collaborative career guidance are as follows: 
  • The collaborative process must involve clients Counselors should consult with all parties, especially regarding options, objectives, outcomes, methods and atmosphere in the process of guidance and counseling. The task of the BK teacher/counselor is to direct, facilitate, give way and leave it entirely to the client to make his choice. 
This also applies in a collaborative manner, where students as clients must be involved, in the sense of being told that they will collaborative activities are carried out. Providing information will be carried out collaborative activities to clients/students is done so that students do not feel left out of the process they are undergoing and it is possible that students have a different perspective from the BK teacher/counselor in an effort to achieve optimal career development. 

In the implementation of collaborative career guidance, students as individuals are served by teachers BK/counselors through career guidance should be notified that collaborative activities will be carried out which will involve parents in the implementation of activities with BK teachers/counselors whose purpose is to help achieve optimal career development for students. 

  • Improve relationship The quality of the relationship between the BK teacher/counselor and the client needs to be maintained so that the client feels that BK teachers/counselors are able to hear, understand, and appreciate their views that can change herself. BK teachers/counselors are advised to always be able to appreciate and validate the client's experience by providing empathy, respecting verbal actions, respecting, encouraging, setting goals, and intervention. 

Collaboration should be able to improve the relationship between counselor and client so that client progress is achieved. Improved relationships do not only occur between BK teachers/counselors and students (as clients), but also with parents who are implementing collaborative activities. Relationship enhancement This is also important considering that the success of collaborative implementation cannot be separated from conditions who accept each other, listen to each other, are valued by each other through the creation of good relationships. 

Furthermore, Bertolino & O'Hanlon (2002) revealed that the relationship Collaborative activities are the most important thing to build in starting a collaborative activity, considering that this will affect the collaborative process that will be undertaken together. The relationship in question should make the client (in this case students and parents) feel heard, understood/understood by each other's needs, their existence is acknowledged and justified so that they feel comfortable to follow the next process. 

Students and parents can be asked to tell things general matters relating to career development, BK teachers/counselors can listen to statements is to provide a reflection of the story from the impossible to something possible through dissolving impossibility talk, talking about the future talk, giving permission for what is thought or experienced in the process internal, utilization, inclusion, reading reflection, and match language. 

  • Change and future-oriented Each theory or model of therapy offers an explanation of why an individual has a problem and how to overcome these problems so that changes occur within themselves, individual. The purpose of holding collaborative career guidance is a change in the client, which directed at change and focused on aspects that can lead to changes in career development. These changes are intended so that students are ready to face
wider life in the future. This does not mean that past and future experiences now it is simply removed but becomes a source or reference/lesson for conditions/readiness to address the same or different problems in the future. This should also occur in parents as collaborative partners of counselors (especially in career guidance). 

Conditions/treatment of parents in the past and present influence the development and career development of children can be used as a source of information for providing better real treatment and effort in helping children's career development in the future will come. 4) The client has the ability The counselor must believe that the client has the abilities, strengths, and experience that can be used to help solve the problem, even though in its current state it has not appeared/has not been developed. 

The task of the BK teacher/counselor is to raise and develop the abilities, strengths, and experience is the client so that the client can understand himself well and use his strengths himself to solve the problem. The BK teacher/counselor should also believe that parents have the strength/ability to change and do better in the future. 

It is based on parents are the people who know the most about their child's condition (be it interests, career tendencies, attitudes towards careers, values ​​applied to children) because it is parents who educate and the first environment of children's education. 
  • Changes are predictable Smith, et. al (in Bertolino & O'Hanlon, 2002: 25) states that change can predictable and impactful when the collaborative guidance and counseling model is applied for six to eight sessions. Counselors need to find the right way to correct the client if at the end of the session the result is decreased (negative). 
This is a source of strength for BK teachers/counselors and parents that collaborative efforts that are carried out together must be carried out in earnest to obtain results satisfactory. Furthermore, Friend & Cook (Lee, 2013) explains that the collaborative principle should be referred to six characteristics, namely 
  • Collaborative is voluntary, where between collaborative components component should carry out collaborative activities voluntarily, there is no coercion either from the BK teacher/counselor to parents and to students, 
  • Collaborative based on equality/balance, where the teacher The counselor/counselor should believe that all individuals who contribute have value/meaning equal and balanced, 
  • Collaboratively carried out on a common goal, where these goals are formulated and will be achieved jointly by the BK teacher/counselor with parents, 
  • The collaborative is included share responsibility for important decisions, this means that collaborative activities not only being dominated by one person but sharing responsibilities, 
  • Collaboratively sharing accountability for results, where in addition to being responsible for important decisions, counseling teachers/counselors and parents in collaborative activities have responsibility for the accountability of tailored activities with the objectives to be achieved, 
  • Collaborative should be various sources, which means that between collaborative components should complement each other, provide knowledge to each other, provide information so that all of them have almost the same abilities, and 
  • Collaborative activities should be existing activities in achieving better goals in achieving the development of students who optimal


Afdal, A., Suya, M., Syamsu, S., & Uman, U. (2014). Bimbingan karir kolaboratif dalam pemantapan perencanaan karir siswa SMA. Jurnal Konseling dan Pendidikan2(3), 1-7.

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