Characteristics, Principles and Classroom Action Research Models

Steps to Make Classroom Action Research Classroom Action Research abbreviated as PTK or Classroom Action Research is a form of research that occurs in the classroom in the form of certain actions taken to improve the teaching and learning process in order to improve learning outcomes better than before.

Classroom action research can be used as the implementation of various existing programs in schools, by examining various indicators of the success of the process and learning outcomes that occur in students or the success of the process and the results of the implementation of various school programs.

The purpose of classroom action research is to change teacher teaching behavior, student behavior in class, increase or improve learning practices, and or change the framework for implementing classroom learning taught by the teacher so that there is an increase in teacher professional services in handling the learning process.

Characteristics and Principles of Classroom Action Research

The main characteristic of classroom action research is the participation and collaboration between the researcher and the target group members. Classroom action research must demonstrate a change in the direction of improvement and improvement in a positive way. If the action actually brings weakness, negative decline, or change, it means that it violates the character of classroom action research. The characteristics that indicate the characteristics of classroom action research are as follows:

Reflective inquiry. Classroom action research departs from the real learning problems faced by teachers and students on a daily basis. So, research activities are based on the implementation of tasks (practice-driven) and taking action to solve the problems at hand (action-driven).

Collaborative. Efforts to improve the process and learning outcomes cannot be done alone by researchers outside the classroom, but they must collaborate with students. Classroom action research is a concerted effort by various parties to bring about the desired improvements.

Reflective. Classroom action research has a special characteristic, namely, a continuous reflective attitude. In contrast to formal research approaches, which often prioritize experimental empirical approaches, classroom action research emphasizes the reflection process on the research process and results.

Classroom Action Research Models

According to Mulyatiningsih (2011), there are four models of classroom action research, namely:

a. Model Kurt Lewin

Become the main reference or basis for the existence of various other Action Research models, especially CAR. Said so because he was the first to introduce action research or action research. The concept of this model consists of four components (cycles), namely: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

b. Riel model

The CAR model divides the action research process into several stages, namely: study and planning, taking action, collecting and analyzing events, reflection. Solving the problem requires study and planning. Problems are determined based on empirical experiences found on a daily basis. After the problem has been identified, the appropriate action is planned to overcome the problem and can be carried out by the researcher. Action support devices (media, RPP) are prepared at the planning stage. The next stage is the implementation of the action, then collecting data/information and analyzing it. The evaluation results are then analyzed, evaluated, and responded to. Activities carried out until the problem can be resolved.

c. Kemmis and Taggart's model

According to Kemiss and Taggart (1988), the research procedure consists of four stages of activity in one cycle, namely: planning-action and observation-reflection. This model is frequently referred to by researchers. Action and observation activities combined at one time. The results of the observations are reflected to determine the next activity. The cycle is carried out continuously until the researcher is satisfied, the problem is resolved and the learning result is maximum.

d. DDAER model

The complete design of the PTK is abbreviated as DDAER (diagnosis, design, action, and observation). In this study, the first thing to do is not diagnose the problem before the research diagnostic action. The problem diagnosis is written in the background of the problem. Then the researcher identifies actions and chooses one action to solve the problem

Basically, classroom action research is carried out through several cycles or repeated cycles. Each cycle refers to the PTK method described earlier, which consists of the following four stages.

Classroom Action Research Cycle

1. The planning stage

At this stage, the researcher must carefully prepare the research concept to be carried out, for example, a lesson plan and its instruments.

2. Implementation stage

The mop stage action is an important stage in determining the success of the research. It is at this stage that you will execute the plan that has been made. At this stage, you must be able to teach properly and as is. That means, don't look tense and as if you're forced to.

3. The observation stage

At the observation stage, there are two things that you must observe, namely student learning activities and teaching activities for you. You can monitor student learning activities during the learning process. Meanwhile, your teaching activities can be monitored by other people (collaborators) such as fellow teachers.

4. The reflection stage

The reflection stage can be in the form of a discussion between Mr / Ms and collaborators. The discussion aims to share the results of collaborators' observations on your performance in class.

Classroom Action Research Design:

  • The PTK design includes the following activities.
  • Determine the appropriate CAR model to be applied in a school.
  • Create designs and construct action steps.
  • Identify all required components, for example, collaborators, programs, and implementation timelines.
  • Prepare research instruments such as tools, observation guidelines, learning media, and so on.

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